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140M info: Apollo 13 is a movie starring Tom Hanks, Bill Paxton, and Kevin Bacon. NASA must devise a strategy to return Apollo 13 to Earth safely after the spacecraft undergoes massive internal damage putting the lives of the three astronauts Directed by: Ron Howard William Broyles Jr., Jim Lovell USA. Having Matt Lauer do the interviews ruined everything. I love how the surgeon was smoking. Man what i would give to go back in time to witness the launch of a saturn 5 rocket.

Apollo 13 Apollo 13's damaged service module, seen from the command module, as it was being jettisoned shortly before reentry Mission type Crewed lunar landing attempt ( H) Operator NASA COSPAR ID 1970-029A SATCAT no. 4371 [1] Mission duration 5 days, 22 hours, 54 minutes, 41 seconds [2] Spacecraft properties Spacecraft Apollo CSM -109 Apollo LM -7 Manufacturer CSM: North American Rockwell LM: Grumman Launch mass 45, 931 kilograms (101, 261 lb) [3] Landing mass 5, 050 kilograms (11, 133 lb) [4] Crew Crew size 3 Members James A. Lovell, Jr. John L. Swigert, Jr. Fred W. Haise, Jr. Callsign CM: Odyssey LM: Aquarius Start of mission Launch date April 11, 1970, 19:13:00  UTC Rocket Saturn V SA-508 Launch site Kennedy LC-39A End of mission Recovered by USS  Iwo Jima Landing date April 17, 1970, 18:07:41  UTC Landing site South Pacific Ocean 21°38′24″S 165°21′42″W  /  21. 64000°S 165. 36167°W Docking with LM Docking date April 11, 1970, 22:32:08 UTC Undocking date April 17, 1970, 16:43:00 UTC Lovell, Swigert, Haise Apollo program ←  Apollo 12 Apollo 14  → Apollo 13 was the seventh crewed mission in the Apollo space program and the third meant to land on the Moon. The craft was launched from Kennedy Space Center on April 11, 1970, but the lunar landing was aborted after an oxygen tank in the service module (SM) failed two days into the mission. The crew instead looped around the Moon, and returned safely to Earth on April 17. The mission was commanded by Jim Lovell with Jack Swigert as command module (CM) pilot and Fred Haise as lunar module (LM) pilot. Swigert was a late replacement for Ken Mattingly, who was grounded after exposure to rubella. Accidental ignition of damaged wire insulation inside the oxygen tank as it was being routinely stirred caused an explosion that vented the tank's contents. Without oxygen, needed both for breathing and for generating electric power, the SM's propulsion and life support systems could not operate. The CM's systems had to be shut down to conserve its remaining resources for reentry, forcing the crew to transfer to the LM as a lifeboat. With the lunar landing canceled, mission controllers worked to bring the crew home alive. Although the LM was designed to support two men on the lunar surface for two days, Mission Control in Houston improvised new procedures so it could support three men for four days. The crew experienced great hardship caused by limited power, a chilly and wet cabin and a shortage of potable water. There was a critical need to adapt the CM's cartridges for the carbon dioxide removal system to work in the LM; the crew and mission controllers were successful in improvising a solution. The astronauts' peril briefly renewed interest in the Apollo program; tens of millions watched the splashdown in the South Pacific Ocean by television. An investigative review board found fault with preflight testing of the oxygen tank and the fact that Teflon was placed inside it. The board recommended changes, including minimizing the use of potentially combustible items inside the tank; this was done for Apollo 14. The story of Apollo 13 has been dramatized several times, most notably in the 1995 film Apollo 13. Background In 1961, U. S. President John F. Kennedy challenged his nation to land an astronaut on the Moon by the end of the decade, with a safe return to Earth. [5] NASA worked towards this goal incrementally, sending astronauts into space during Project Mercury and Project Gemini, leading up to the Apollo program. [6] The goal was achieved with Apollo 11, which landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the lunar surface while Michael Collins orbited the Moon in Command Module Columbia. The mission returned to Earth on July 24, 1969, fulfilling Kennedy's challenge. [5] NASA had contracted for fifteen Saturn V rockets to achieve the goal; at the time no one knew how many missions this would require. [7] Since success was obtained in 1969 with the sixth Saturn   V on Apollo 11, nine rockets remained available for a hoped-for total of ten landings. After the excitement of Apollo 11, the general public grew apathetic towards the space program and Congress continued to cut NASA's budget; Apollo 20 was canceled. [8] Despite the successful lunar landing, the missions were considered so risky that astronauts could not afford life insurance to provide for their families if they died in space. [note 1] [9] Mission Operations Control Room during the TV broadcast just before the Apollo 13 accident. Astronaut Fred Haise is shown on the screen. Even before the first U. astronaut entered space in 1961, planning for a centralized facility to communicate with the spacecraft and monitor its performance had begun, for the most part the brainchild of Christopher C. Kraft, who became NASA's first flight director. During John Glenn 's Mercury Friendship 7 flight in February 1962 (the first crewed orbital flight by the U. ), Kraft was overruled by NASA managers. He was vindicated by post-mission analysis, and implemented a rule that during the mission, the flight director's word was absolute [10] —to overrule him, NASA would have to fire him on the spot. [11] Flight directors during Apollo had a one-sentence job description, "The flight director may take any actions necessary for crew safety and mission success. " [12] In 1965, Houston's Mission Control Center opened, in part designed by Kraft and now named for him. [10] In Mission Control, each flight controller, as well as monitoring telemetry from the spacecraft, was in communication via voice loop to specialists in a Staff Support Room (or "back room"), who focused on specific spacecraft systems. [11] Apollo 13 was to be the second H mission, meant to demonstrate precision lunar landings and explore specific sites on the Moon. [13] With Kennedy's goal accomplished by Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 demonstrating that the astronauts could perform a precision landing, mission planners were able to focus on more than just landing safely and having astronauts minimally trained in geology gather lunar samples to take home to Earth. There was a greater role for science on Apollo 13, especially for geology, something emphasized by the mission's motto, Ex luna, scientia (From the Moon, knowledge). [14] Astronauts and key Mission Control personnel Swigert, Lovell and Haise the day before launch Apollo 13's mission commander, Jim Lovell, was 42 years old at the time of the spaceflight, which was his fourth and last. He was a graduate of the United States Naval Academy and had been a naval aviator and test pilot before being selected for the second group of astronauts in 1962; he flew with Frank Borman in Gemini 7 in 1965 and Aldrin in Gemini 12 the following year before flying in Apollo 8 in 1968, the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon. [15] Jack Swigert, the command module pilot (CMP), was 38 years old and held a B. in mechanical engineering and an M. in aerospace science; he had served in the Air Force and in state Air National Guards, and was an engineering test pilot before being selected for the fifth group of astronauts in 1966. [16] Fred Haise, the lunar module pilot (LMP), was 35 years old. He held a B. in aeronautical engineering, had been a Marine Corps fighter pilot, and was a civilian research pilot for NASA when he was selected as a Group   5 astronaut. [17] Apollo 13 was Swigert's and Haise's only spaceflight. [18] According to the standard Apollo crew rotation, the prime crew for Apollo 13 would have been the backup crew [note 2] for Apollo 10 with Mercury and Gemini veteran Gordon Cooper in command, Donn F. Eisele as CMP and Edgar Mitchell as LMP. Deke Slayton, NASA's Director of Flight Crew Operations, never intended to rotate Cooper and Eisele to a prime crew assignment, as both were out of favor – Cooper for his lax attitude towards training, and Eisele for incidents aboard Apollo   7 and an extramarital affair. He assigned them to the backup crew because no other veteran astronauts were available. [21] Slayton's original choices for Apollo 13 were Alan Shepard as commander, Stuart Roosa as CMP, and Mitchell as LMP. However, management felt Shepard needed more training time, as he had only recently resumed active status after surgery for an inner ear disorder, and had not flown since 1961. Thus Lovell's crew (himself, Haise and Ken Mattingly) having all backed up Apollo 11 and slated for Apollo 14, was swapped with Shepard's. [21] Swigert was originally CMP of Apollo 13's backup crew, with John Young as commander and Charles Duke as lunar module pilot. [22] Seven days before launch, Duke contracted rubella from a friend of his son. [23] This exposed both the prime and backup crews, who trained together. Of the five, only Mattingly was not immune through prior exposure. Normally, if any member of the prime crew had to be grounded, the remaining crew would be replaced as well, and the backup crew substituted, but Duke's illness ruled this out, [24] so two days before launch, Mattingly was replaced by Swigert. [16] Mattingly never developed rubella and later flew on Apollo 16. [25] For Apollo, a third crew of astronauts, known as the support crew, was designated in addition to the prime and backup crews used on projects Mercury and Gemini. Slayton created the support crews because James McDivitt, who would command Apollo 9, believed that, with preparation going on in facilities across the US, meetings that needed a member of the flight crew would be missed. Support crew members were to assist as directed by the mission commander. [26] Usually low in seniority, they assembled the mission's rules, flight plan, and checklists, and kept them updated; [27] [28] for Apollo 13, they were Vance D. Brand, Jack Lousma and either William R. Pogue or Joseph Kerwin. [note 3] [33] For Apollo 13, flight directors were: Gene Kranz, White team, [34] (the lead flight director); [35] [36] Glynn Lunney, Black team; Milt Windler, Maroon team and Gerry Griffin, Gold team. [34] The CAPCOMs (the person in Mission Control, during the Apollo program an astronaut, who was responsible for voice communications with the crew) [37] for Apollo 13 were Kerwin, Brand, Lousma, Young and Mattingly. [38] Mission insignia and call signs The Apollo 13 mission insignia depicts the Greek god of the Sun, Apollo, with three horses pulling his chariot across the face of the Moon, and the Earth seen in the distance. This is meant to symbolize the Apollo flights bringing the light of knowledge to all people. The mission motto, Ex luna, scientia (From the Moon, knowledge), appears. In choosing it, Lovell adapted the motto of his alma mater, the Naval Academy, Ex scientia, trident (From knowledge, sea power). [39] [40] On the patch, the mission number appeared in Roman numerals as Apollo XIII. It did not have to be modified after Mattingly's replacement by Swigert since it is one of only two Apollo mission insignia—the other being Apollo 11—not to include the names of the crew. It was designed by artist Lumen Martin Winter, who based it on a mural he had painted for The St. Regis Hotel in New York City. [41] The mural was later purchased by actor Tom Hanks, [42] who portrayed Lovell in the movie Apollo 13, and is now in the Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in Illinois. [43] The mission's motto was in Lovell's mind when he chose the call sign Aquarius for the lunar module, taken from Aquarius, the bringer of water. [44] [45] Some in the media erroneously reported that the call sign was taken from a song by that name from the musical Hair. [45] [46] The command module's call sign, Odyssey, was chosen not only for its Homeric association but to refer to the recent movie, 2001: A Space Odyssey, based on a short story by science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke. [44] In his book, Lovell indicated he chose the name Odyssey because he liked the word and its definition: a long voyage with many changes of fortune. [45] Launch vehicle and spacecraft CSM-109 Odyssey being assembled and tested The Saturn V rocket used to carry Apollo 13 to the Moon was numbered SA-508, and was almost identical to those used on Apollo   8 through 12. [47] Including the spacecraft, the rocket weighed in at 2, 949, 136 kilograms (6, 501, 733 lb). [3] The S-IC stage's engines were rated to generate 440, 000 newtons (100, 000 lbf) less total thrust than Apollo 12's, though they remained within specifications. Extra propellant was carried as a test since future J missions to the Moon would require more propellant for their heavier payloads. This made the vehicle the heaviest yet flown by NASA and Apollo 13 was visibly slower to clear the launch tower than earlier missions. [48] The Apollo 13 spacecraft consisted of Command Module 109 and Service Module 109 (together CSM-109), called Odyssey, and Lunar Module   7 (LM-7), called Aquarius. Also considered part of the spacecraft were the launch escape system which would propel the command module (CM) to safety in the event of a problem during liftoff, and the Spacecraft–LM Adapter, numbered as SLA-16, which housed the lunar module (LM) during the first hours of the mission. [49] [50] The LM stages, CM and service module (SM) were received at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in June 1969; the portions of the Saturn V were received in June and July. Thereafter, testing and assembly proceeded, culminating with the rollout of the launch vehicle, with the spacecraft atop it, on December 15, 1969. [49] Apollo 13 was originally scheduled for launch on March 12, 1970; in January of that year NASA announced the mission would be postponed until April 11, both to allow more time for planning and to spread the Apollo missions over a longer period of time. [51] The plan was to have two Apollo flights per year, and was in response to budgetary constraints [52] that had recently seen the cancellation of Apollo 20. [53] Training and preparation Lovell practices deploying the flag The Apollo 13 prime crew undertook over 1, 000 hours of mission-specific training, more than five hours for every hour of the mission's ten-day planned duration. Each member of the prime crew spent over 400 hours in simulators of the CM and (for Lovell and Haise) of the LM at KSC and at Houston, some of which involved the flight controllers at Mission Control. [54] Flight controllers participated in many simulations of problems with the spacecraft in flight, which taught them how to react in an emergency. [11] Specialized simulators at other locations were also used by the crew members. [54] The astronauts of Apollo 11 had minimal time for geology training, with only six months between crew assignment and launch; higher priorities took much of their time. [55] Apollo 12 saw more such training, including practice in the field, using a CAPCOM and a simulated backroom of scientists, to whom the astronauts had to describe what they saw. [56] Scientist-astronaut Harrison Schmitt saw that there was limited enthusiasm for geology field trips. Believing an inspirational teacher was needed, Schmitt arranged for Lovell and Haise to meet his old professor, Caltech 's Lee Silver. The two astronauts, and backups Young and Duke, went on a field trip with Silver at their own time and expense. At the end of their week together, Lovell made Silver their geology mentor, who would be extensively involved in the geology planning for Apollo 13. [57] Farouk El-Baz oversaw the training of Mattingly and his backup, Swigert, which involved describing and photographing simulated lunar landmarks from airplanes. [58] El-Baz had all three prime crew astronauts describe geologic features they saw during their flights between Houston and KSC; Mattingly's enthusiasm caused other astronauts, such as Apollo 14's CMP, Roosa, to seek out El-Baz as a teacher. [59] Concerned about how close Apollo 11's LM, Eagle, had come to running out of propellant during its lunar descent, mission planners decided that beginning with Apollo 13, the CSM would bring the LM to the low orbit from which the landing attempt would commence. This was a change from Apollo 11 and 12, on which the LM made the burn to bring it to the lower orbit. The change was part of an effort to increase the amount of hover time available to the astronauts as the missions headed into rougher terrain. [60] The plan was to devote the first of the two four-hour lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs) to setting up the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) group of scientific instruments; during the second, Lovell and Haise would investigate Cone crater, near the planned landing site. [61] The two astronauts wore their spacesuits for some 20 walk-throughs of EVA procedures, including sample gathering and use of tools and other equipment. They flew in the " Vomit Comet " in simulated microgravity or lunar gravity, including practice in donning and doffing spacesuits. To prepare for the descent to the Moon's surface, Lovell flew the Lunar Landing Training Vehicle (LLTV). [62] Despite the fact that four of the five LLTVs and similar Lunar Landing Research Vehicles crashed during the course of the Apollo program, mission commanders considered flying them invaluable experience. [63] Experiments and scientific objectives Lovell (left) and Haise during geology training in Hawaii, January 1970 Apollo 13's designated landing site was near Fra Mauro crater; the Fra Mauro formation was believed to contain much material spattered by the impact that had filled the Imbrium basin early in the Moon's history. Dating it would provide information not only about the Moon, but about the Earth's early history. Such material was likely to be available at Cone crater, a site where an impact was believed to have drilled deep into the lunar regolith. [64] Apollo 11 had left a seismometer on the Moon, but the solar-powered unit did not survive its first two-week-long lunar night. The Apollo 12 astronauts also left one as part of its ALSEP, which was nuclear-powered. [65] Apollo 13 also carried a seismometer (known as the Passive Seismic Experiment, or PSE), similar to Apollo 12's, as part of its ALSEP, to be left on the Moon by the astronauts. [66] That seismometer was to be calibrated by the impact, after jettison, of the ascent stage of Apollo 13's LM, an object of known mass and velocity impacting at a known location. [67] Other ALSEP experiments on Apollo 13 included a Heat Flow Experiment (HFE), which would involve drilling two holes 3. 0 metres (10 ft) deep. [68] This was Haise's responsibility; he was also to drill a third hole of that depth for a core sample. [69] A Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment (CPLEE) measured the protons and electrons of solar origin reaching the Moon. [70] The package also included a Lunar Atmosphere Detector (LAD) [71] and a Dust Detector, to measure the accumulation of debris. [72] The Heat Flow Experiment and the CPLEE were flown for the first time on Apollo 13; the other experiments had been flown before. [69] Haise practices removing the fuel capsule from its transport cask mounted on the LM. The real cask sank unopened into the Pacific Ocean with its radioactive contents. To power the ALSEP, the SNAP-27 radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) was flown. Developed by the U. Atomic Energy Commission, SNAP-27 was first flown on Apollo 12. The fuel capsule contained about 3. 79 kilograms (8. 36 lb) of plutonium oxide. The cask placed around the capsule for transport to the Moon was built with heat shields of graphite and of beryllium, and with structural parts of titanium and of Inconel materials. Thus, it was built to withstand the heat of reentry into the Earth's atmosphere rather than pollute the air with plutonium in the event of an aborted mission. [73] A United States flag was also taken, to be erected on the Moon's surface. [74] For Apollo 11 and 12, the flag had been placed in a heat-resistant tube on the front landing leg; it was moved for Apollo 13 to the Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) in the LM descent stage. The structure to fly the flag on the airless Moon was improved from Apollo 12's. [75] Since Lovell and Haise were to undertake longer traverses than on the earlier missions, the tool carrier which the Apollo 12 astronauts had hand-carried was expanded, given two wheels, and dubbed the Modular Equipment Transporter. [76] For the first time, red stripes were placed on the helmet, arms and legs of the commander's A7L spacesuit. This was done as after Apollo 11, those reviewing the images taken had trouble distinguishing Armstrong from Aldrin, but the change was approved too late for Apollo 12. [77] New drink bags that attached inside the helmets and were to be sipped from as the astronauts walked on the Moon were demonstrated by Haise during Apollo 13's final television broadcast before the accident. [78] [79] Apollo 13's primary mission objectives were to: "Perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials in a preselected region of the Fra Mauro Formation. Deploy and activate an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package. Develop man's capability to work in the lunar environment. Obtain photographs of candidate exploration sites. " [80] The astronauts were also to accomplish other photographic objectives, including of the Gegenschein from lunar orbit, and of the Moon itself on the journey back to Earth. Some of this photography was to be performed by Swigert as Lovell and Haise walked on the Moon. [81] Swigert was also to take photographs of the Lagrangian points of the Earth-Moon system. Apollo 13 had twelve cameras on board, including those for television and moving pictures. [69] The crew was also to downlink bistatic radar observations of the Moon. None of these was attempted because of the accident. [81] Flight of Apollo 13 The circumlunar trajectory followed by Apollo 13, drawn to scale; the accident occurred about 56 hours into the mission Apollo 13 spacecraft configuration during most of the journey Launch and translunar injection Apollo 13 launches from Kennedy Space Center, April 11, 1970 The mission was launched at the planned time, 2:13:00 pm EST (19:13:00 UTC) on April 11. An anomaly occurred when the second-stage, center (inboard) engine shut down about two minutes early. [82] [83] This was caused by severe pogo oscillations. Starting with Apollo 10, the vehicle's guidance system was designed to shut the engine down in response to chamber pressure excursions. [84] Pogo oscillations had occurred on Titan rockets (used during the Gemini program) and on previous Apollo missions, [85] [86] but on Apollo 13 they were amplified by an interaction with turbopump cavitation. [87] [88] A fix to prevent pogo was ready for the mission, but schedule pressure did not permit the hardware's integration into the Apollo 13 vehicle. [84] [89] A post-flight investigation revealed the engine was one cycle away from catastrophic failure. [84] In spite of the shutdown, the four outboard engines and the S-IVB third stage burned longer to compensate, and the vehicle achieved very close to the planned circular 190 kilometers (100 nmi) parking orbit, followed by a translunar injection (TLI) about two hours later, setting the mission on course for the Moon. [82] [83] After TLI, Swigert performed the separation and transposition maneuvers before docking the CSM Odyssey to the LM Aquarius, and the spacecraft pulled away from the third stage. Ground controllers then sent the third stage on a course to impact the Moon in range of the Apollo 12 seismometer, which it did just over three days into the mission. [91] The crew settled in for the three-day trip to Fra Mauro. At 30:40:50 into the mission, with the TV camera running, the crew performed a burn to place Apollo 13 on a hybrid trajectory. The departure from a free-return trajectory meant that if no further burns were performed, Apollo 13 would miss Earth on its return trajectory, rather than intercept it, as with a free return. [92] A free return trajectory could only reach sites near the lunar equator; a hybrid trajectory, which could be started at any point after TLI, allowed sites with higher latitudes, such as Fra Mauro, to be reached. [93] Communications were enlivened when Swigert realized that in the last-minute rush, he had omitted to file his federal income tax return (due April 15), and amid laughter from mission controllers, asked how he could get an extension. He was found to be entitled to a 60-day extension for being out of the country at the deadline. [94] Entry into the LM to test its systems had been scheduled for 58:00:00; when the crew awoke on the third day of the mission, they were informed it had been moved up three hours and was later moved up again by another hour. A television broadcast was scheduled for 55:00:00; Lovell, acting as emcee, showed the audience the interiors of Odyssey and Aquarius. [95] The audience was limited by the fact that none of the television networks were carrying the broadcast, [96] forcing Marilyn Lovell (Jim Lovell's wife) to go to the VIP room at Mission Control if she wanted to watch her husband and his crewmates. [97] Accident Approximately six and a half minutes after the TV broadcast – approaching 56:00:00 – Apollo 13 was about 180, 000 nautical miles (210, 000 mi; 330, 000 km) from Earth. [98] Haise was completing the shutdown of the LM after testing its systems while Lovell stowed the TV camera. Jack Lousma, the CAPCOM, sent minor instructions to Swigert, including changing the attitude of the craft to facilitate photography of Comet Bennett. [98] [99] The pressure sensor in one of the SM's oxygen tanks had earlier appeared to be malfunctioning, so Sy Liebergot (the EECOM, in charge of monitoring the CSM's electrical system) requested that the stirring fans in the tanks be activated. Normally this was done once daily; this additional stir would destratify the contents of the tanks, making the pressure readings more accurate. [98] The Flight Director, Kranz, had Liebergot wait a few minutes for the crew to settle down after the telecast, [100] then Lousma relayed the request to Swigert, who activated the switches controlling the fans, [98] and after a few seconds turned them off again. [99] Ninety-five seconds after Swigert activated those switches, [100] the astronauts heard a "pretty large bang", accompanied by fluctuations in electrical power and the firing of the attitude control thrusters. [101] [102] Communications and telemetry to Earth were lost for 1. 8 seconds, until the system automatically corrected by switching the high-gain S-band antenna, used for translunar communications, from narrow-beam to wide-beam mode. [103] The accident happened at 55:54:53; Swigert reported 26 seconds later, "Okay, Houston, we've had a problem here, " echoed at 55:55:42 by Lovell, "Houston, we've had a problem. We've had a Main B Bus undervolt. " [98] Lovell's initial thought on hearing the noise was that Haise had activated the LM's cabin-repressurization valve, which also produced a bang (Haise enjoyed doing so to startle his crewmates) but Lovell could see that Haise had no idea what had happened. Swigert initially thought that a meteoroid might have struck the LM, but he and Lovell quickly realized there was no leak. [104] The Main Bus B undervolt meant that there was insufficient voltage flowing from the SM's three power cells (fueled by hydrogen and oxygen piped from their respective tanks) to the second of the SM's two power distribution systems. Almost everything in the CSM required power. Although the bus momentarily returned to normal status, soon both buses A and B were short on voltage. Haise checked the status of the fuel cells, and found that two of them were dead. Mission rules forbade entering lunar orbit unless all fuel cells were operational. [105] In the minutes after the accident, there were several unusual readings, showing that tank   2 was empty and tank   1's pressure slowly falling, that the computer on the spacecraft had reset, and that the high-gain antenna was not working. Liebergot initially missed the worrying signs from tank   2 following the stir, as he was focusing on tank   1, believing that its reading would be a good guide to what was present in tank   2; so did controllers supporting him in the "back room". When Kranz questioned Liebergot on this he initially responded that there might be false readings due to an instrumentation problem; he was often teased about that in the years to come. [11] Lovell, looking out the window, reported "a gas of some sort" venting into space, making it clear that there was a serious problem. [106] Since the fuel cells needed oxygen to operate, when Oxygen Tank   1 ran dry, the remaining fuel cell would shut down, meaning the CSM's only significant sources of power and oxygen would be the CM's batteries and its oxygen "surge tank". These would be needed for the final hours of the mission, but the remaining fuel cell, already starved for oxygen, was drawing from the surge tank. Kranz ordered the surge tank isolated, saving its oxygen, but this meant that the remaining fuel cell would die within two hours, as the oxygen in tank   1 was consumed or leaked away. [105] The volume surrounding the spacecraft was filled with myriad small bits of debris from the accident, complicating any efforts to use the stars for navigation. [107] The mission's goal became simply getting the astronauts back to Earth alive. [108] Looping around the Moon This depiction of a direct abort (from a 1966 planning report) contemplates returning from a point much earlier in the mission, and closer to Earth, than where the Apollo 13 accident occurred. The lunar module had charged batteries and full oxygen tanks for use on the lunar surface, so Kranz directed that the astronauts power up the LM and use it as a "lifeboat" [11]  – a scenario anticipated but considered unlikely. [109] Procedures for using the LM in this way had been developed by LM flight controllers after a training simulation for Apollo 10 in which the LM was needed for survival, but could not be powered up in time. [108] Had Apollo 13's accident occurred on the return voyage, with the LM already jettisoned, the astronauts would have died. [110] A key decision was the choice of return path. A "direct abort" would use the SM's main engine (the Service Propulsion System or SPS) to return before reaching the Moon. But the accident could have damaged the SPS, and the fuel cells would have to last at least another hour to meet its power requirements, so Kranz instead decided on a longer route: the spacecraft would swing around the Moon before heading back to Earth. Apollo 13 was on the hybrid trajectory which was to take it to Fra Mauro; it now needed to be brought back to a free return. The LM's Descent Propulsion System (DPS), although not as powerful as the SPS, could do this, but new software for Mission Control's computers needed to be written by technicians as it had never been contemplated that the CSM/LM spacecraft would have to be maneuvered by the DPS. As the CM was being shut down, Lovell copied down its guidance system's orientation information and performed hand calculations to transfer it to the LM's guidance system, which had been turned off; at his request Mission Control checked his figures. [108] [111] At 61:29:43. 49 the DPS burn of 34. 23 seconds took Apollo 13 back to a free return trajectory. [112] The Apollo 13 crew photographed the Moon out of the Lunar Module. The change would get Apollo 13 back to Earth in about four days' time – though with splashdown in the Indian Ocean, where NASA had few recovery forces. Jerry Bostick and other Flight Dynamics Officers (FIDOs) were anxious both to shorten the travel time and to move splashdown to the Pacific Ocean, where the main recovery forces were located. One option would shave 36 hours off the return time, but required jettisoning the SM; this would expose the CM's heat shield to space during the return journey, something for which it had not been designed. The FIDOs also proposed other solutions. After a meeting involving NASA officials and engineers, the senior individual present, Manned Spaceflight Center director Robert R. Gilruth, decided on a burn using the DPS, that would save 12 hours and land Apollo 13 in the Pacific. This "PC+2" burn would take place two hours after pericynthion, the closest approach to the Moon. [108] At pericynthion, Apollo 13 set the record (per the Guinness Book of World Records), which still stands, for the highest absolute altitude attained by a crewed spacecraft: 400, 171 kilometers (248, 655 mi) from Earth at 7:21 pm EST, April 14 (00:21:00 UTC April 15). [113] [note 4] While preparing for the burn the crew was told that the S-IVB had impacted the Moon as planned, leading Lovell to quip, "Well, at least something worked on this flight. " [116] [117] Kranz's White team of mission controllers, which had spent most of their time supporting other teams and developing the procedures urgently needed to get the astronauts home, took their consoles for the PC+2 procedure. [118] Normally, the accuracy of such a burn could be assured by checking the alignment Lovell had transferred to the LM's computer against the position of one of the stars astronauts used for navigation, but the light glinting off the many pieces of debris accompanying the spacecraft made that impractical. The astronauts used the one star available whose position could not be obscured – the Sun. Houston also informed them that the Moon would be centered in the commander's window of the LM as they made the burn, which was almost perfect – less than 0. 3 meters (a foot) per second off. [116] The burn, at 79:27:38. 95, lasted four minutes, 23 seconds. [119] The crew then shut down most LM systems to conserve consumables. [116] Return to earth Swigert with the rig improvised to adapt the CM's lithium hydroxide canisters for use in the LM The LM carried enough oxygen, but that still left the problem of removing carbon dioxide, which was absorbed by canisters of lithium hydroxide pellets. The LM's stock of canisters, meant to accommodate two astronauts for 45 hours on the Moon, was not enough to support three astronauts for the return journey to Earth. [120] The CM had enough canisters, but they were the wrong shape and size to work in the LM's equipment. Engineers on the ground devised a way to bridge the gap, using plastic, covers ripped from procedures manuals, duct tape, and other items. [121] [122] NASA engineers referred to the improvised device as "the mailbox". The procedure for building the device was read to the crew by CAPCOM Joe Kerwin over the course of an hour, and it was built by Swigert and Haise; carbon dioxide levels began dropping immediately. Lovell later described this improvisation as "a fine example of cooperation between ground and space". [123] Lovell tries to rest in the frigid spacecraft The CSM's electricity came from fuel cells that produced water as a byproduct, but the LM was powered by silver-zinc batteries, so both electrical power and water (needed for equipment cooling as well as drinking) would be critical. LM power consumption was reduced to the lowest level possible; [124] Swigert was able to fill some drinking bags with water from the CM's water tap, [116] but even assuming rationing of personal consumption, Haise initially calculated they would run out of water for cooling about five hours before reentry. This seemed acceptable because the systems of Apollo 11's LM, once jettisoned in lunar orbit, had continued to operate for seven to eight hours even with the water cut off. In the end, Apollo 13 returned to Earth with 12. 8 kilograms (28. 2 lb) of water remaining. [125] The crew's ration was 0. 2 liters of water per person per day; the three astronauts lost a total of 14 kilograms (31 lb) among them, and Haise developed a urinary tract infection. [126] [127] Apollo 13: Houston, We've Got a Problem (1970) — Documentary about the mission by NASA (28:21) Inside the darkened spacecraft, the temperature dropped as low as 3 °C (38 °F). Lovell considered having the crew don their spacesuits, but decided this would be too hot. Instead, Lovell and Haise wore their lunar EVA boots and Swigert put on an extra coverall. All three astronauts were cold, especially Swigert, who had got his feet wet while filling the water bags and had no lunar overshoes (since he had not been scheduled to walk on the Moon). As they had been told not to discharge their urine to space to avoid disturbing the trajectory, they had to store it in bags. Water condensed on the walls, though any condensation there may have been behind equipment panels [128] caused no problems, partly because of the extensive electrical insulation improvements instituted after the Apollo 1 fire. [129] Despite all this the crew voiced few complaints. [130] Flight controller John Aaron, along with Mattingly and several engineers and designers, devised a procedure for powering up the command module from full shutdown – something never intended to be done in flight, much less under Apollo 13's severe power and time constraints. [131] The astronauts implemented the procedure without apparent difficulty: Kranz later credited the fact that all three astronauts had been test pilots, accustomed to having to work in critical situations with their lives on the line, for their survival. [130] Reentry and splashdown Despite the accuracy of the transearth injection, the spacecraft slowly drifted off course, necessitating a correction. As the LM's guidance system had been shut down following the PC+2 burn, the crew was told to use the line between night and day on the Earth to guide them, a technique used on NASA's earth-orbit missions but never on the way back from the Moon. [130] This DPS burn, at 105:18:42 for 14 seconds, brought the projected entry flight path angle back within safe limits. Nevertheless, yet another burn was needed at 137:40:13, using the LM's reaction control system (RCS) thrusters, for 21. 5 seconds. The SM was jettisoned less than half an hour later, allowing the crew to see the damage for the first time, and photograph it. They reported that an entire panel was missing from the SM's exterior, the fuel cells above the oxygen tank shelf were tilted, that the high-gain antenna was damaged, and there was a considerable amount of debris elsewhere. [132] Haise could see damage to the SM's engine bell, validating Kranz's decision not to use the SPS. [130] Apollo 13 splashes down in the South Pacific on April 17, 1970 The last problem to be solved was how to separate the lunar module a safe distance away from the command module just before reentry. The normal procedure, in lunar orbit, was to release the LM then use the service module's RCS to pull the CSM away, but by this point the SM had already been released. Grumman, manufacturer of the LM, assigned a team of University of Toronto engineers, led by senior scientist Bernard Etkin, to solve the problem of how much air pressure to use to push the modules apart. The astronauts applied the solution, which was successful. [133] The LM reentered Earth's atmosphere and was destroyed, the remaining pieces falling in the deep ocean. [134] [135] Apollo 13's final midcourse correction had addressed the concerns of the Atomic Energy Commission, which wanted the cask containing the plutonium oxide intended for the SNAP-27 RTG to land in a safe place. The impact point was over the Tonga Trench in the Pacific, one of its deepest points, and the cask sank 10 kilometers (6 mi) to the bottom. Later helicopter surveys found no radioactive leakage. [130] Ionization of the air around the command module during reentry would typically cause a four-minute communications blackout. Apollo 13's shallow reentry path lengthened this to six minutes, longer than had been expected; controllers feared that the CM's heat shield had failed. [136] Odyssey regained radio contact and splashed down safely in the South Pacific Ocean, 21°38′24″S 165°21′42″W  /  21. 36167°W, [137] southeast of American Samoa and 6. 5 km (3. 5 nmi) from the recovery ship, USS Iwo Jima. [138] Although fatigued, the crew was in good condition except for Haise, who was suffering from a serious urinary tract infection because of insufficient water intake. [127] The crew stayed overnight on the ship and flew to Pago Pago, Samoa, the next day. They flew to Hawaii, where President Richard Nixon awarded them the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor. [139] They stayed overnight, and then were flown back to Houston. [140] En route to Honolulu, President Nixon stopped at Houston to award the Presidential Medal of Freedom to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team. [141] He originally planned to give the award to NASA administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine, but Paine recommended the mission operations team. [142] Public and media reaction Nobody believes me, but during this six-day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima, which picked us up, because the sailors had been as remote from the media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact: there we found President Nixon and [NASA Administrator] Dr. Paine to meet us, along with my wife Marilyn, Fred's wife Mary (who being pregnant, also had a doctor along just in case), and bachelor Jack's parents, in lieu of his usual airline stewardesses. —  Jim Lovell [127] Worldwide interest in the Apollo program was reawakened by the incident; television coverage of which was seen by millions. Four Soviet ships headed toward the landing area to assist if needed, [143] and other nations offered assistance should the craft have to splash down elsewhere. [144] President Nixon canceled appointments, phoned the astronauts' families, and drove to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, where Apollo's tracking and communications were coordinated. [143] The rescue received more public attention than any spaceflight to that point, other than the first Moon landing on Apollo 11. There were worldwide headlines, and people surrounded television sets to get the latest developments, offered by networks who interrupted their regular programming for bulletins. Pope Paul VI led a congregation of 10, 000 people in praying for the astronauts' safe return; ten times that number offered prayers at a religious festival in India. [145] The United States Senate on April 14 passed a resolution urging businesses to pause at 9:00   pm local time that evening to allow for employee prayer. [143] An estimated 40 million Americans watched Apollo 13's splashdown, carried live on all three networks, with another 30 million watching some portion of the six and one-half hour telecast. Even more outside the U. watched. Jack Gould of The New York Times stated that Apollo 13, "which came so close to tragic disaster, in all probability united the world in mutual concern more fully than another successful landing on the Moon would have". [146] Investigation and response Review board Oxygen tank number 2, showing heater and thermostat unit Immediately upon the crew's return, NASA Administrator Paine and Deputy Administrator George Low appointed a review board – chaired by NASA Langley Research Center Director Edgar M. Cortright and including Neil Armstrong and six others [note 5]  – to investigate the accident. The board's final report, sent to Paine on June 15, [148] found that the failure began in the service module's number   2 oxygen tank. [149] Damaged Teflon insulation on the wires to the stirring fan inside Oxygen Tank   2 allowed the wires to short-circuit and ignite this insulation. The resulting fire quickly increased pressure inside the tank and the tank dome failed, filling the fuel cell bay (SM Sector   4) with rapidly expanding gaseous oxygen and combustion products. The escaping gas was probably enough by itself to blow out the aluminum exterior panel to Sector   4, but combustion products generated as nearby insulation ignited would have added to the pressure. The panel's departure exposed the sector to space, snuffing out the fire, and it probably hit the nearby high-gain antenna, disrupting communications to Earth for 1. 8 seconds. [150] The sectors of the SM were not airtight from each other, and had there been time for the entire SM to become as pressurized as Sector   4, the force on the CM's heat shield would have separated the two modules. The report questioned the use of Teflon and other materials shown to be flammable in supercritical oxygen, such as aluminum, within the tank. [151] The board found no evidence pointing to any other theory of the accident. [152] Mechanical shock forced the oxygen valves closed on the number   1 and number   3 fuel cells, putting them out of commission. [153] The sudden failure of Oxygen Tank   2 compromised Oxygen Tank   1, causing its contents to leak out, possibly through a damaged line or valve, over the next 130 minutes, entirely depleting the SM's oxygen supply. [154] [155] With both SM oxygen tanks emptying, and with other damage to the SM, the mission had to be aborted. [156] The board praised the response to the emergency, "The imperfection in Apollo 13 constituted a near disaster, averted only by outstanding performance on the part of the crew and the ground control team which supported them. " [157] Oxygen Tank 2 was manufactured by the Beech Aircraft Company of Boulder, Colorado, as subcontractor to North American Rockwell (NAR) of Downey, California, prime contractor for the CSM. [158] It contained two thermostatic switches, originally designed for the command module's 28-volt DC power, but which could fail if subjected to the 65 volts used during ground testing at KSC. [159] Under the original 1962 specifications, the switches would be rated for 28 volts, but revised specifications issued in 1965 called for 65 volts to allow for quicker tank pressurization at KSC. Nonetheless, the switches Beech used were not rated for 65 volts. [160] Panel similar to the SM Sector   4 cover being ejected during a test performed as part of the investigation At NAR's facility, Oxygen Tank 2 had been originally installed in an oxygen shelf placed in the Apollo 10 service module, SM-106, but which was removed to fix a potential electromagnetic interference problem and another shelf substituted. During removal, the shelf was accidentally dropped at least 5 centimeters (2 in) because a retaining bolt had not been removed. The probability of damage from this was low, but it is possible that the fill line assembly was loose and made worse by the fall. After some retesting (which did not include filling the tank with liquid oxygen), in November 1968 the shelf was re-installed in SM-109, intended for Apollo 13, which was shipped to KSC in June 1969. [161] The Countdown Demonstration Test took place with SM-109 in its place near the top of the Saturn V and began on March 16, 1970. During the test, the cryogenic tanks were filled, but Oxygen Tank 2 could not be emptied through the normal drain line, and a report was written documenting the problem. After discussion among NASA and the contractors, attempts to empty the tank resumed on March 27. When it would not empty normally, the heaters in the tank were turned on to boil off the oxygen. The thermostatic switches were designed to prevent the heaters from raising the temperature higher than 27 °C (80 °F), but they failed under the 65-volt power supply applied. Temperatures on the heater tube within the tank may have reached 540 °C (1, 000 °F), most likely damaging the Teflon insulation. [159] The temperature gauge was not designed to read higher than 29 °C (85 °F), so the technician monitoring the procedure detected nothing unusual. This heating had been approved by Lovell and Mattingly of the prime crew, as well as by NASA managers and engineers. [162] [163] Replacement of the tank would have delayed the mission by at least a month. [126] The tank was filled with liquid oxygen again before launch; once electric power was connected, it was in a hazardous condition. [156] The board found that Swigert's activation of the Oxygen Tank   2 fan at the request of Mission Control caused an electrical arc that set the tank on fire. [164] The board conducted a test of an oxygen tank rigged with hot-wire ignitors that caused a rapid rise in temperature within the tank, after which it failed, producing telemetry similar to that seen with the Apollo 13 Oxygen Tank 2. [165] Tests with panels similar to the one that was seen to be missing on SM Sector   4 caused separation of the panel in the test apparatus. [166] Changes in response Redesigned oxygen tank for Apollo   14 For Apollo 14 and subsequent missions, the oxygen tank was redesigned, the thermostats being upgraded to handle the proper voltage. The heaters were retained since they were necessary to maintain oxygen pressure. The stirring fans, with their unsealed motors, were removed, which meant the oxygen quantity gauge was no longer accurate. This required adding a third tank so that no tank would go below half full. [167] The third tank was placed in Bay   1 of the SM, on the side opposite the other two, and was given an isolation valve that could isolate it from the fuel cells and from the other two oxygen tanks in an emergency, and allow it to feed the CM's environmental system only. The quantity probe was upgraded from aluminum to stainless steel. [168] All electrical wiring in Bay   4 was sheathed in stainless steel. The fuel cell oxygen supply valves were redesigned to isolate the Teflon-coated wiring from the oxygen. The spacecraft and Mission Control monitoring systems were modified to give more immediate and visible warnings of anomalies. [167] An emergency supply of 19 litres (5 US gal) of water was stored in the CM, and an emergency battery, identical to those that powered the LM's descent stage, was placed in the SM. The LM was modified to make transfer of power from LM to CM easier. [169] Devices were placed in the S-II second stage to counteract pogo oscillations. [170] Aftermath On February 5, 1971, Apollo 14 's LM, Antares, landed on the Moon with astronauts Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell aboard, near Fra Mauro, the site Apollo 13 had been intended to explore. [171] Haise served as CAPCOM during the descent to the Moon, [172] and during the second EVA, during which Shepard and Mitchell explored near Cone crater. [173] None of the Apollo 13 astronauts flew in space again. Lovell retired from NASA and the Navy in 1973, entering the private sector. [174] Swigert was to have flown on the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (the first joint mission with the Soviet Union) but was removed as part of the fallout from the Apollo 15 postal covers incident. He took a leave of absence from NASA in 1973 and left the agency to enter politics, being elected to the House of Representatives in 1982, but died of cancer before he could be sworn in. [175] Haise was slated to have been the commander of the canceled Apollo 19 mission, and flew the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests before retiring from NASA in 1979. [176] Several experiments were completed even though the mission did not land on the Moon. [177] One involved the launch vehicle's S-IVB (the Saturn V's third stage) which on prior missions had been sent into solar orbit once detached. The seismometer left by Apollo 12 had detected frequent impacts of small objects onto the Moon, but larger impacts would yield more information about the Moon's crust, so it was decided that beginning with Apollo 13, the S-IVB would be crashed into the Moon. [178] The impact occurred at 77:56:40 into the mission and produced enough energy that the gain on the seismometer, 117 kilometers (73 mi) from the impact, had to be reduced. [91] An experiment to measure the amount of atmospheric electrical phenomena during the ascent to orbit – added after Apollo 12 was struck by lightning – returned data indicating a heightened risk during marginal weather. A series of photographs of Earth, taken to test whether cloud height could be determined from synchronous satellites, achieved the desired results. [177] The Apollo 13 command module Odyssey on display at the Cosmosphere in Hutchinson, Kansas The CM's interior components were removed during the investigation of the accident and reassembled into boilerplate BP-1102A, the water egress training module, which was subsequently on display at the Museum of Natural History and Science in Louisville, Kentucky, until 2000. Meanwhile, the exterior shell was displayed at the Musée de l'air et de l'espace, in Paris. The command module shell and the internal components were reassembled, and Odyssey is currently on display at the Cosmosphere in Hutchinson, Kansas. [179] Apollo 13 was called a "successful failure" by Lovell. [180] It has been repeatedly called, "NASA's finest hour". [181] [182] [183] [184] Author Colin Burgess wrote, "the life-or-death flight of Apollo 13 dramatically evinced the colossal risks inherent in manned spaceflight. Then, with the crew safely back on Earth, public apathy set in once again. " [185] William R. Compton, in his book about the Apollo Program, said of Apollo 13, "Only a heroic effort of real-time improvisation by mission operations teams saved the crew. " [186] Rick Houston and Milt Heflin, in their history of Mission Control, stated, "Apollo 13 proved mission control could bring those space voyagers back home again when their lives were on the line. " [187] Former NASA chief historian Roger D. Launius wrote, "More than any other incident in the history of spaceflight, recovery from this accident solidified the world’s belief in NASA’s capabilities". [188] Nevertheless, the accident convinced some officials, such as Manned Spaceflight Center director Gilruth, that if NASA kept sending astronauts on Apollo missions, some would inevitably be killed, and they called for as quick an end as possible to the program. [188] Nixon's advisers recommended canceling the remaining lunar missions, saying that a disaster in space would cost him political capital. [189] Budget cuts made such a decision easier, and during the pause after Apollo 13, two missions were canceled, meaning that the program ended with Apollo 17 in December 1972. [188] [190] Popular culture and media Command module replica used during Apollo 13 filming The 1974 movie Houston, We've Got a Problem, while set around the Apollo 13 incident, is a fictional drama about the crises faced by ground personnel when the emergency disrupts their work schedules and places further stress on their lives. Lovell publicly complained about the movie, saying it was "fictitious and in poor taste". [191] [192] "Houston... We've Got a Problem" was the title of an episode of the BBC documentary series A Life At Stake, broadcast in March 1978. This was an accurate, if simplified, reconstruction of the events. [193] In 1994, during the 25th anniversary of Apollo 11, PBS released a 90-minute documentary titled Apollo 13: To the Edge and Back. [194] [195] Following the flight, the crew planned to write a book, but they all left NASA without starting it. After Lovell retired in 1991, he was approached by journalist Jeffrey Kluger about writing a non-fiction account of the mission. Swigert died in 1982 and Haise was no longer interested in such a project. The resultant book, Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13, was published in 1994. [196] The next year, in 1995, a film adaptation of the book, Apollo 13, was released, directed by Ron Howard and starring Tom Hanks as Lovell, Bill Paxton as Haise, Kevin Bacon as Swigert, Gary Sinise as Mattingly, Ed Harris as Kranz, and Kathleen Quinlan as Marilyn Lovell. James Lovell, Kranz, and other principals have stated that this film depicted the events of the mission with reasonable accuracy, given that some dramatic license was taken. For example, the film changes the tense of Lovell's famous follow-up to Swigert's original words from, "Houston, we've had a problem" to " Houston, we have a problem ". [98] [197] The film also invented the phrase " Failure is not an option ", uttered by Harris as Kranz in the film; the phrase became so closely associated with Kranz that he used it for the title of his 2000 autobiography. [197] The film won two of the nine Academy Awards it was nominated for, Best Film Editing and Best Sound. [198] [199] In the 1998 miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, co-produced by Hanks and Howard, the mission is dramatized in the episode "We Interrupt This Program". Rather than showing the incident from the crew's perspective as in the Apollo 13 feature film, it is instead presented from an Earth-bound perspective of television reporters competing for coverage of the event. [200] Gallery Lovell practices deploying the ALSEP during training The Apollo 13 launch vehicle being rolled out, December 1969 Lunar module Aquarius after it was jettisoned above the Earth Mission Control celebrates the successful splashdown The crew speaking with President Nixon shortly after their return Replica of the lunar plaque with Swigert's name that was to cover the one attached to Aquarius with Mattingly's name Notes ^ No Apollo astronaut flew without life insurance, but the policies were paid for by private third parties whose involvement was not publicized. [9] ^ The role of the backup crew was to train and be prepared to fly in the event something happened to the prime crew. [19] Backup crews, according to the rotation, were assigned as the prime crew three missions after their assignment as backups. [20] ^ Some sources list Kerwin [29] and others list Pogue as the third member [30] [31] [32] ^ The record was set because the Moon was nearly at its furthest from Earth during the mission. Apollo 13's unique free return trajectory caused it to go approximately 100 kilometers (60 mi) further from the lunar far side than other Apollo lunar missions, but this was a minor contribution to the record. [114] A reconstruction of the trajectory by astrodynamicist Daniel Adamo in 2009 records the furthest distance as 400, 046 kilometers (248, 577 mi) at 7:34 pm EST (00:34:13 UTC). Apollo 10 holds the record for second-furthest at a distance of 399, 806 kilometers (248, 428 mi). [115] ^ The others were Robert F. 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"Deke"; Cassutt, Michael (1994). Deke! U. Manned Space: From Mercury to the Shuttle (1st ed. New York: Forge. ISBN   978-0-312-85503-1. Turnill, Reginald (2003). The Moonlandings: An Eyewitness Account. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-03535-4. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Apollo 13. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Apollo 13 NASA reports "Apollo 13: Lunar exploration experiments and photography summary" (Original mission as planned) (PDF) NASA, February 1970 "Apollo 13 Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription" (PDF) NASA, April 1970 Multimedia "Space Educators' Handbook Apollo 13" at NASA "Apollo 13: LIFE With the Lovell Family During 'NASA's Finest Hour'" – slideshow by Life magazine "Apollo 13: NASA's Finest Hour" – slideshow by Life magazine at the Internet Archive.

REST IN PEACE JAMES HORNER AND BILL PAXTON. Incredible moments when all the world was following the Apollo 13 ordeal! It was one of the finest moments for the space program, second only to the moon landing! Thanks for posting, it brought back the reason why I am an engineer. Apollo 13 Watch free online. Эта статья о миссии Apollo. Для фильма, основанного на нем, см Apollo 13 (пленки). Для Ловелл-авторства книги под названием Apollo 13 см Потеряна Луна. Аполлон 13 Аполлон 13 экипажа фотографировал Луну из лунного окна сближения модуля над головой, как они проходили мимо. Командный модуль деактивируется виден. Тип миссии Пилотируемый лунный попытка посадки оператор НАСА COSPAR ID 1970-029A SATCAT нет. 4371 продолжительность полета 5 дней, 22 часов, 54 минут, 41 секунд свойства космических аппаратов космический корабль Apollo CSM -109 Apollo LM -7 производитель CSM: North American Rockwell LM: Grumman стартовая масса 101, 261 фунтов (45, 931 кг) Посадка массы 11, 133 фунтов (5050 кг) экипаж размер экипажа 3 члены Джеймс А. Ловелл младший Джон Л. Свиджерт младший Фред У. Haise младший позывной CM: Odyssey LM: Водолей Начало миссии Дата запуска 11 апреля 1970, 19:13:00  UTC ракета Сатурн V СА-508 Запуск сайта Кеннеди LC-39A Конец миссии Взыскано по USS  Иводзима дата посадки 17 апреля 1970, 18:07:41  UTC Место посадки Южный Тихий океан 21 ° 38'24 "S 165 ° 21'42" W  /  21, 64000 ° С 165, 36167 ° W параметры орбиты эталонная система геоцентрический Режим Cislunar Пролет Луны (орбиты и посадки прерванные) максимальное сближение 15 апреля 1970, 00:21:00 UTC Расстояние 254 км (137 NMI) Стыковка с LM дата Стыковка 11 апреля 1970, 22:32:08 UTC открепление дата 17 апреля 1970, 16:43:00 UTC Слева направо Ловелл, Свиджерт, Haise, через 12 дней после их возвращения. программа Apollo ←  Apollo 12 Аполлон - 14  → Аполлон 13 был седьмой пилотируемый полет в космической программе Apollo и третий предназначен для земли на Луне. Корабль был спущен на воду 11 апреля 1970 года из Космического центра Кеннеди, штата Флориды, но лунная посадка была прервана после того, как кислородный бак взорвался через два дня, парализует сервисный модуль (SM), на которой модуль команды зависел (CM). Несмотря на большую трудность, вызванной ограниченной мощностью, потерями кабины тепла, нехватка питьевой воды, а также насущной необходимость сделать временный ремонт в систему удаления диоксида углерода, экипаж благополучно вернулся на Землю 17 апреля 1970 года, через шесть дней после запуска. Полет прошел дальнюю сторону Луны на высоту 254 км (137 морских миль) над поверхностью Луны и 400, 171 км (248655 миль) от Земли, записей космического полета маркировочных самые дальних людей когда - либо путешествовали с Земли. Миссия командовал Джеймс А. Ловелл с Джоном Л. «Джек» Суигерт как командный модуль Pilot и Фред У. Haise как лунного модуля Pilot. Свиджерт была последней заменой для оригинального пилота CM Маттинк, который был заземлен полетным хирургом после воздействия краснухи. История миссии Аполлон 13 была экранизирована много раз, особенно в 1995 году фильм Аполлон 13. Основной и дублирующий экипаж В соответствии со стандартной ротации экипажа на месте во время программы Apollo, основной экипаж Apollo 13 был бы резервный экипаж Apollo 10 с Mercury и Gemini ветеран Л. Гордон Купер в команде. Это экипаж состоял из Командир Л. Гордон Купер младший; Командный модуль Pilot Донн Ф. Айзель; Лунный модуль Pilot Эдгар Д. Митчелл. Слейтон, директор НАСА по обеспечению полетов экипажа, никогда не намеревался повернуть Купер и EISELE в другую миссию, так как оба были в немилость руководства НАСА по различным причинам (Купер за его слабое отношение к обучению, и Айзеле инцидентов на борте Apollo 7 и экстра-семейное дело). Он поручил им дублирующего экипажа просто из - за отсутствия квалифицированных летных кадров в астронавтов во время назначение необходимо сделать. Слейтон чувствовал Купер не был больше, чем очень небольшой шанс получения команды Apollo 13, если он сделал выдающуюся работу с заданием, которое он не сделал. Несмотря на вопросы, EISELE с руководством, Слейтон всегда хотел назначить его в будущем Apollo Applications Program миссии, а не лунная миссию, но эта программа была в конечном счете сократить до только Скайлэба компонента. Таким образом, первоначальное назначение Слейтон представил свое начальство для этого полета был: Командующий Алан Б. Шепард младший; Командный модуль Pilot Stuart A. Руза; Впервые в истории, рекомендация Слейтона была отвергнута руководством, который чувствовал, что Шепард нужен больше времени, чтобы обучить правильно для лунного полета, так как он только недавно воспользовался экспериментальной хирургией, чтобы исправить внутреннее расстройство уха, который держал его заземлен, поскольку его первый полет Mercury в 1961 году Таким образом, экипаж Ловелл, подпорка для исторической Apollo 11 миссии, и поэтому намечен на Apollo 14 был заменен командой Шепарда и оригинальный выбор для экипажа миссии стали: Оригинал фото экипажа. Слева направо: Ловеллы, Маттинк, Хайз Премьер-команда: Дублирующий экипаж: Маттингли был изначально задуман как командный модуль Pilot. За семь дней до запуска резервного пилот лунного модуля, Чарли Дьюк, заразилась краснухой от одного из своих детей. Это подвергается как простые и дублирующий экипажи, которые обучались вместе. Маттингли было установлено, что только один из пяти остальных, которые не имели краснуху в детстве, и, таким образом, не был застрахован. За три дня до старта, по настоянию полета хирурга, Свиджерт был переведен в основной экипаж. Маттинк никогда не контракт краснухи и был назначен после миссии в качестве пилота командного модуля для экипажа Янг, который позже вылетел Apollo 16, пятую миссию на землю на Луне. Поддержка экипажа Вэнс Бранд; Джек Р. Лусм; Джозеф П. Кервин. директора Летные Джин Кранц (свинец) - Белая команда; Глинн Ланни - Черная команда; Milt Windler - команда Maroon; Gerry Griffin - золотая команда. эмблема миссии Миссия знаки космонавтов ваялось как медальон, изображающий Кони Аполлона на Lumen Martin Winter и был поражен Франклин монетного двора. параметры миссии Масса: CSM Odyssey 63, 470 фунтов (28, 790 кг); LM Водолей 33, 490 фунтов (15190 кг); Перигей: 99, 3 морских миль (183, 9 км); Апогей (стоянка орбиты): 100, 3 морских миль (185, 8 км); Склонность (выезд Земли): 31, 817 °; Период: 88, 19 мин. Задача Аполлон 13 задачей было исследовать образование Фра Мауро, или Фра Мауро горной местности, названный в честь 80 км (50 миль) диаметром От Mauro кратера, расположенного внутри него. Широко распространена, холмистая selenological область считается, состоят из выброшеннога от удара, который образуется Море Дождей. Следующий Apollo миссии Аполлон 14, в конечном счете, сделал успешный полет в Фра Мауро. выкинуть 14 апреля 1970 UTC (13 апреля, 21:07:53 CST) Взрыв кислородного бака: 3:07:53 UTC (55:54:53 Ground Прошедшее время); 173, 790. 5 NMI (321860 км) от Земли CSM мощность вниз, LM мощностью до: 05:23 UTC (58:10 Ground Прошедшее время) Ближайший подход к Луне 15 апреля 1970, 00:21:00 UTC; 137 NMI (253, 7 км) приводнение 17 апреля 1970, 18:07:41 UTC (142: 54: 47 Первый Прошедшее время). Экипаж был на борту USS Иводзима 45 минут. основные моменты миссии Запуск и translunar инъекции Apollo 13 запускает из Космического центра Кеннеди, 11 апреля 1970 Конфигурация космического корабля Apollo 13 на пути к Луне Миссия была начата в запланированное время, 2:13:00 PM EST (19:13:00 UTC) 11 апреля аномалия произошла, когда вторая ступень, центр (внутренны) выключение двигателя примерно две минуты раньше. Четыре подвесных двигателей и двигателя третьей ступени сжигается больше, чтобы компенсировать, и транспортное средство достигается очень близко к планируемым круговыми 100 морских миль (190 км) парковка орбиты, а затем обычной инъекции translunar около двух часов. Выключения двигателя было определено быть вызвано серьезными колебаниями пого, измеренных на прочность 68 г и частотой 16 Гц, сгибая упорную раму на 3 дюйма (76 мм). Система наведения автомобиля двигатель заглушена в ответ почувствовал упорное колебание давления камеры. Pogo колебание было видно на предыдущих Titan ракет, а также на Сатурне V во время Apollo 6, а на Apollo 13, они были амплифицированы неожиданным взаимодействием с турбонасосной кавитацией. Последующие миссии реализованы модификации анти-Pogo, которые были в стадии разработки. Они включали добавление резервуара гелия-газ в центре двигатель жидкого кислород линию влажных колебания давления, автоматическое обрезание в качестве резервного, и упрощение пороховых клапанов всех пяти второй ступень двигателей. Экипаж выполнил маневр разделения и транспонирования на стыковку СМ Одиссеи к LM Водолею, и отстранился от отработанного третьего этапа, который диспетчеры затем пересылаются на курс, чтобы воздействовать на Луну в диапазоне сейсмометра помещенного на поверхности Apollo 12. Затем они поселились в течение трех дней поездки в Фра Мауро. Авария Миссия номер операция управление во время четвертой передачи телевизионного Аполлона 13, в вечере 13 апреля 1970 года лунный модуль пилот Фред Haise младший виден на экране. Приближается 56 часов в миссии Apollo 13 был примерно 205000 миль (330000 км) от Земли на пути к Луне. Примерно шесть с половиной минут после того, как в конце живой телевизионной трансляции с космического аппарата, Хайз был в процессе закрывая LM, а Ловелл был закладочных телекамерой. Хьюстон диспетчеры попросили Свиджерты включить водород и кислород танковых перемешивающих вентиляторов в модуле обслуживания, которые были разработаны для destratify в криогенном содержание и повысить точность их показаний количества. Через две минуты, астронавты услышали «довольно большой взрыв», сопровождающиеся колебаниями электрической мощности и обжиге движителей управления ориентацией; экипаж сначала подумал, что метеорит мог бы ударил лунный модуль. Коммуникации и телеметрия на Землю были потеряны в течение 1, 8 секунд, пока система автоматически корректируется путем переключения с высоким коэффициентом усиления S-диапазон антенны, используемая для связи, translunar из узкого пучка в режим с широким лучом. Сразу же после взрыва, Суигерт сообщили о «проблеме», которая повторяется Ловелл и осветленной как «основной Б шины UNDERVOLT», временной потери рабочего напряжения на втором из главных электрических цепей космического корабля. Кислород бак-немедленно считан количество нуля. Примерно через три минуты спустя, № 1 и № 3 топливные элементы не удалось. Ловелл сообщил, что видел в окно, что корабль был вентиляционным «газом какого-то» в космос. Количество кислорода бака № 1 постепенно уменьшается до нуля в течение следующих 130 минут, полностью разрушающих подачу кислорода в СМ. Поскольку топливные элементы генерируются электроэнергии командного и служебного модуля путем объединения водорода и кислорода в воду, когда кислород резервуар 1 пересох, оставшийся топливный элемент, наконец, закрыли, оставив корабль с питанием от батареи ограниченной длительности командного модуля и воды. Экипаж был вынужден закрыть СМ полностью сохранить это для входа в атмосферу, а также для включения питания LM для использования в качестве «спасательной шлюпки». Эта ситуация была предложена в ходе ранее моделирования обучения, но не считается вероятным сценарием. Без ЛМ, авария, конечно, закончились смертельным исходом. Окололунный траектории с последующим Apollo 13, вычерчены в масштабе; авария произошла около 5 1 / 2 часов от входа в сферу Луны гравитационного влияния выживание экипажа и обратный путь Прямой Прервать возвращение, изображали в докладе в 1966 планирования. Траектория показана в точке гораздо раньше и дальше от Луны, чем где Аполлон 13 произошла авария. Повреждение сервисного модуля из безопасного возвращения из прилунения невозможно, поэтому ведущий руководитель полета Джин Кранц заказал прерывание миссии. Существующие планы аварийного прекращения, первый составленные в 1966 году, были оценены; самый быстрый была траектория Прямая Прервать, которая требует использования службы двигательной системы (SPS) двигатель, чтобы достигнуть 6079 футов в секунду (1, 853 м / с) дельта - V. п. III-14 Несмотря на успешный СПС стрельбы на 60 часов землю истекшее время (ГЭТ) приземлится экипаж один день раньше (на 118 часов GET, или 58 часов), большой дельта- v было возможно только, если LM были выброшены за борт первым, стр. II-1 и поскольку выживаемость экипажа зависела от присутствия ЛМ во время побережья обратно на Землю, этот вариант был «из вопроса. » п. III-17 Альтернативой было бы сжечь SPS топлива к истощению, а затем выбросить за борт служебного модуля и сделать второй ожог с LM Descent Propulsion System (DPS) двигатель. Это было желательно, чтобы модуль службы прикрепленную так долго, насколько это возможно из - за тепловой защиты, обеспечиваемой он теплозащитный экран командного модуля. Apollo 13 был близок к вводу лунную сферу гравитационного влияния (на 61 часов GET), который был безубыточности между прямым и окололунную прерывается, а последнее позволило больше времени для оценки и планирования до крупного ракетного ожога. B-5 Там также было беспокойство по поводу «структурной целостности служебного модуля» р. III-23 планировщики так миссии были проинструктированы, что двигатель SPS не будет использоваться « кроме как в последнем отчаянном усилии. III-14 По этим причинам, Кранц выбрал альтернативный вариант окололунного, используя гравитацию Луны, чтобы вернуть корабль на Землю. Аполлон 13 оставил свой первоначальный свободной траектории возвращения ранее в миссии, как это требуется для прилунения в Фра Мауро. Поэтому первое дело должны был восстановить свободную траекторию возвращения с 30, 7 вторым ожогом ДПС. Спуск двигатель снова использовал два часа после pericynthion, ближайший подход к Луне ( «PC + 2 ожоговой»), чтобы ускорить возвращение на Землю 10 часов и переместить место посадки из Индийского океана до Тихого океана. Более агрессивный ожог может быть выполнен на PC + 2, первым отбрасывая модуль службы, возвращая экипаж примерно такое же количество времени, как прямое прерывание, с. III-20, но это было сочтено излишним с учетом скорости, при которой были использованы расходные материалы. 4 минут, 24 секунд записи была настолько точной, что только еще две небольшие корректировки курса впоследствии были необходимы. Астронавт Джон Л. Свиджерт, справа, с «почтовым ящиком» вышка импровизированной адаптировать квадрат командного модуль углекислота скруббер картриджи, чтобы соответствовать лунному модулю, который прошел круглый картридж Значительная изобретательность под сильным давлением требуется от экипажа, диспетчеров и вспомогательного персонала для безопасного возвращения. Развивающаяся драма была показана по телевидению. Поскольку электрическая мощность была сильно ограничена, были сделаны не более живые телевизионные передачи; Комментаторы использовали модель и анимированные кадры в качестве иллюстраций. Низкие уровни мощности сравняется голосовой связи трудно. Лунные расходные модули были предназначены для поддержания двух человек в течение полутора дней, а не три человека в течение четырех дней. Кислород был наименее критическим, так как расходуемый LM осуществляется достаточно, чтобы repressurize на LM после каждой поверхности EVA. В отличие от модуля управления и обслуживания (CSM), который питается от топливных элементов, которые производили воду в качестве побочного продукта, то LM был приведен в действие серебристо-цинковых батарей, так что электрическая энергия и вода (используется для оборудования охлаждения, а также пить) было критическим расходные материалы. Для поддержания систем жизнеобеспечения и связи LM эксплуатационное до входа в атмосферу, ЛМ был приведен в действие вплоть до самых низких уровней возможных. В частности, АЯ в системе Прервать Руководство использовались для большей части побережья обратно на Землю вместо системы первичного наведения, так как он используется меньше энергии и воды. стр. III-17, 33, 40 Наличие гидроксида лития (LiOH) для удаления диоксида углерода представил серьезную проблему. Складской ЛМ по LiOH канистры не было достаточно, чтобы поддержать команду до возвращения, а остаток находится в стадии спуска, вне досягаемости. КМ имел достаточный запас канистр, но они были несовместимы с LM. Инженеры на земле импровизированного способа присоединиться к кубовидному CM канистры в цилиндрических канистрах штекеров ЛХ путем втягивания воздуха через них с костюмом возвратного шлангом. Инженеры НАСА называют импровизированное устройство, как «почтовый ящик». Еще одна проблема, которую необходимо решить для безопасного возвращения был достижении полной мощности вверх от нуля модуля команды полностью остановленных, что - то никогда не намеревался сделать в полете. Контроллер Flight Джон Аарон, при поддержке заземленного астронавта Мэттинк и многих инженеров и дизайнеров, пришлось изобрести новую процедуру, чтобы сделать это с ограниченным коэффициентом питания и времени судна. Это дополнительно осложняется тем фактом, что пониженные уровни мощности в LM вызвали внутренние температуры упасть до минимального 4 ° С (39 ° F). Обесточено CM так холодно, что вода начала конденсироваться на твердых поверхностях, вызывая опасения, что это может замкнуть электрические системы, когда она была возобновлена. Это оказалось не быть проблемой, отчасти из-за обширные усовершенствований электрической изоляции, возбужденных после Аполлона 1 огня. Последняя проблема должна быть решена в том, как отделить лунный модуль на безопасное расстоянии от командного модуля непосредственно перед спускаемым. Обычная процедура заключается в использовании модуля услуг системы контроля реакции (RCS), чтобы вытащить CSM прочь после отпускания LM вместе с док - кольцом командного модуля, но это RCS был неработоспособным из-за сбоя питания, и бесполезное SM будет выпущен до LM. Чтобы решить эту проблему, Grumman призвал инженерную экспертизу Университета Торонто. Команда из шести инженеров UT под руководством старшего ученого Бернарда Etkin, была создана, чтобы решить эту проблему в течение дня. Группа пришла к выводу, что давление в туннель, соединяющий лунный модуль с командным модулем непосредственно перед разделением обеспечит усилие, необходимое, чтобы раздвинуть два модуля на безопасном расстоянии друг от друга только до входа в атмосферу. Команда имела 6 часов, чтобы вычислить необходимое давление, используя правила скольжения. Они необходимы точный расчет, так как слишком высокое давление может повредить люк и его уплотнение, в результате чего астронавты сгорают; Слишком низкое давление не будет обеспечивать достаточное расстояние разделительного LM. Grumman передала их расчет в НАСА, а оттуда в свою очередь, к космонавтам, которые использовали его успешно. Reentry и приводнения Аполлон 13 плещет вниз в южной части Тихого океана 17 апреля 1970 Как Аполлон 13 приближались Землю, экипаж первым выбросил за борт сервисного модуля, используя ЛМ в систему управления реакцией, чтобы вытащить себя на безопасном расстоянии от него, вместо обычной процедуры, которая используется автоматическое срабатывание RCS в С. М.. Они сфотографировали его для последующего анализа причин аварии. Именно тогда экипаж были удивлены увидеть в первый раз, что весь сектор 4 панели были сдувается. По мнению аналитиков, эти картины также показали повреждение антенны и, возможно, наклон вверх к полке топливного элемента над кислородной камерой резервуар. И, наконец, экипаж выбросил за борт лунного модуля Aquarius с помощью вышеописанной процедуры разработана в Университете Торонто, в результате чего модуль команды Одиссея, чтобы начать свою одинокую спускаемого через атмосферу. Спускаемый на лунную миссии обычно сопровождались примерно четыре минуты типичного затемнения связи, вызванной ионизацией воздуха вокруг командного модуля. Затемнение в спускаемом Аполлон 13 длилось шесть минут, что было 87 секунд дольше, чем ожидались. Возможность повреждения теплозащитного экрана от O 2 разрыва бака повышенного натяжения затемнения периода. Odyssey восстановил радиосвязь и приводнился безопасно в южной части Тихого океана, 21 ° 38'24 "S 165 ° 21'42" W  /  21, 64000 ° С 165, 36167 ° W, к юго - востоку от Американского Самоа и 6, 5 км (3, 5 НМИ) с корабля восстановления, USS Иводзима. Экипаж был в хорошем состоянии Haise, который страдал от серьезного, кроме инфекции мочевых путей, из - за недостаточного потребления воды. Для того, чтобы избежать изменений траектории космического корабля, экипаж получил указание временно прекратить сбросы мочи, которые заставляли их придумывать способы хранения всей мочи до конца полета. Лунный модуль и модуль службы снова вошел в атмосферу над южной части Тихого океана между островами Фиджи и Новой Зеландии. Экипаж Аполлона - 13 на борту USS Иводзима следующие приводнения Лунный модуль Apollo 13 Водолей будет выброшен за борт над Землей после того, выступающей в качестве спасательной шлюпки, в течение четырех дней. Он вернулся в атмосферу Земли над Фиджи и сгорел при входе в атмосферу модуль Apollo 13 услуг (SM) и лунный модуль (LM), как они вошли в атмосферу Земли над Тихим океаном 18 апреля 1970 года между Фиджи и Окленд, Новая Зеландия ЦУП отмечает успешное приводнение Аполлона 13 Аполлон 13 экипажа разговаривал с президентом Никсоном 17 апреля 1970 Анализ и реагирование Администратор НАСА Томас Пейн и заместитель администратора Джордж Low направил меморандум NASA Langley Research Center директор Эдгар М. Кортрайт 17 апреля 1970 года (дата корабля приводнения) советуя ему о его назначении на пост председателя в Совете Apollo 13 Review, чтобы исследовать причина аварии. Доска обзоров Второй меморандум Кортрайт от Paine и Low 21 апреля установили доску следующим образом: Пользователи: Роберт Ф. Allnutt (помощник Администратора НАСА HQS. ); Нил Армстронг (астронавт, пилотируемый космические аппараты центр); Д-р Джон Ф. Кларк (директор Goddard Space Flight Center); Бриг. Генерал Вальтер Р. Хенрик младший (директор пространства, DCS / RED, HQS, USAF. ); Винсент Л. Джонсон (заместитель помощника Администратора-Инжиниринг, Управление космической науки и техники); Milton Klein (менеджер, AEC-NASA Space Propulsion Управление ядерной); Д-р Ханс М. Марк (директор, Научно-исследовательский центр Эймса). Адвокат: Джордж Малли (главный советник, Научно-исследовательский центр Лэнгли) Техническая поддержка OMSF: Чарльз Мэтьюз (заместитель помощника Администратора Управления пилотируемых космических полетов) Наблюдатели: Уильям А. Андерс (Исполнительный секретарь, Национальное управление по аэронавтике и исследованию космического пространства Совета, бывший астронавт); Д-р Чарльз Д. Харрингтон (председатель, NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel); II Pinkel (директор Исследовательского безопасности аэрокосмический институт данных, научно-исследовательский центр Льюиса). Конгресс США по связи: Джеральд Дж Моссинхофф (Управление по вопросам законодательства, НАСА HQS. ) Общественные связи по делам: Брайан Дафф (директор по связям с общественностью. Пилотируемый космический корабль центр) Мероприятия и отчет Совет исчерпывающе исследовал и проанализировал историю изготовления и испытания кислородного бака, и его установки и тестирования в космических аппаратов до запуска Apollo 13, как описано в подробных отчетах и журналах. Они посетили и консультировался с инженерами на объектах подрядчика и Космического центра Кеннеди. После того, как теория причины была разработана, были протестированы ее элементы, в том числе на моделировании испытательной установки в вакуумной камере, с поврежденным резервуаром, установленным в отсеке топливного элемента. Это испытание подтвердило теорию, когда был создан подобный взрыв, который сорвал внешнюю панель точно, как это случился в полете. Кортрайт направил окончательный отчет Совета Apollo Review 13 до Томаса Пейна от 15 июня 1970 года. Провал начался в номер 2 кислородного бака модуля услуг. Поврежденная тефлоновая изоляция проводов к перемешиваемому вентилятору внутри кислородной емкости 2 позволила провода к короткому замыканию и зажечь эту изоляцию. В результате пожара быстро увеличивается давление за пределами его (6, 9 МПА), предела 1000 фунта-за квадратный дюйм, и танк купол не удался, заполнение отсека топливного элемента (Sector 4) с быстро расширяются газообразный кислород и продукты сгорания. Также возможно, произошло некоторое сгорание майлара / Kapton теплоизоляционного материала, используемого для того чтобы выровнять кислорода полки отсек в этом отсеке. Результирующее давление внутри отсека совало болты, крепящие 13 футов (4, 0 м) Сектор 4 наружной панель алюминиевой кожи, которая, как сорвала, вероятно, вызванную незначительные повреждения близлежащего S-диапазон антенну. Механический удар заставил кислородные клапаны закрыты на топливных элементах № 1 и № 3, в результате чего их работать в течение всего около трех минут на кислороде в линии подачи. Шок также либо частично разорвана линия от кислородного бака № 1, или его причина чек или предохранительного клапана утечки, в результате чего его содержимого просачиваться в пространство в течение следующих 130 минут, полностью разрушающая подача кислорода в СМ. Совет определил неисправность кислородного баллона была вызвана маловероятном цепью событий. Резервуары хранения криогенных, такие как жидкий кислород и жидкий водород, требуют либо вентилирования, чрезвычайно хорошая изоляции, или оба, для того, чтобы избежать чрезмерного повышения давления из - за испарение содержимого танков. Танки кислородных модуль службы были так хорошо изолированы, что они могут безопасно содержать сверхкритический водород и кислород в течение многих лет. Каждый резервуар кислорода провел несколько сот фунтов кислорода, который был использован для дыхания воздуха и производства электроэнергии и воды. Строительство резервуаров производится внутренний осмотр невозможно. Резервуар содержит несколько компонентов, имеющих отношение к аварии: датчик количества; вентилятор для перемешивания содержимого бака для более точных измерений количества; нагреватель для испарения жидкого кислорода по мере необходимости; термостат для защиты нагревателя; датчик температуры; заполнить и сливные клапаны и трубопроводы. Термостаты нагреватель и защиты были изначально разработаны для 28-вольтовой шины постоянного командного модуля. Спецификации для нагревателя и термостата позже были изменены, чтобы позволить подачу заземления на 65 вольт, для того, чтобы создать давление танки более быстрыми темпами. Beechcraft, танк субподрядчик, не обновлял термостат для обработки более высокого напряжения. Полка переносить кислород резервуары кислорода был первоначально установлена в служебном модуле Apollo 10, но была удалена, чтобы устранить потенциальную электромагнитную помехи проблемы. При снятии полки случайно упал примерно на 2 дюйма (5 см), так как удерживающий болт не был удален. Танк оказался неповрежденным, но свободно надетая начинка трубки, по- видимому поврежден, и фотографии предположил, что при закрытии крышка на верхней части бака, возможно, попали в полку топливных элементов. В докладе комиссии по рассмотрению Apollo 13 считает, что вероятность повреждения бака во время этого инцидента, чтобы быть «довольно низкими. » После того, как бак был заполнен для наземных испытаний, она не может быть очищена через обычную сливную линию. Для того, чтобы избежать задержек миссии путем замены бака, нагреватель был подключен к 65-вольтовой силе земли, чтобы выпарить кислород. Ловелл подписал на этой процедуре. Оно должно было несколько дней при температуре термостатическим открытия 27 ° C (81 ° F). Когда термостат открыт, подача 65-вольтовый плавленого закрыты его контакты и нагреватель оставалась питание. Совет подтвердил, что тестирование термостатов приварены сам закрыты под высоким напряжением. Это повышает температуру нагревателя, по оценкам, 540 ° C (1000 ° F). Самописец на ток нагревателя показал, что нагреватель не езда на велосипеде и выключаться, как это должно быть, если термостат правильно работает, но никто не заметил, что в то время. Поскольку датчик температуры не был разработан, чтобы читать выше, чем 27 ° С (81 ° F) Температура открытия термостата, контрольное оборудование не зарегистрировали истинную температуру внутри резервуара. Газ выкипела в часах, а не дней. В устойчивых высоких температурах расплавили тефлоновую изоляцию проводов питания вентилятора и оставили их воздействие. Когда танк был пополнен с кислородом, она стала бомбой ждет, чтобы уйти. Во время процедуры «крио размешать», мощность вентилятора проходит через голые провода, которые, по- видимому замкнуты, производя искры и воспламенение тефлона. Это, в свою очередь, вареный жидкий кислород быстрее, чем вентиляции топливного бака может удалить его. Apollo 13 детали кислорода бака № 2 и блок нагреватель и термостат В июне 1970 года, доклад Кортрайт представил углубленный анализ миссии в чрезвычайно подробный пять-главе отчета с восемью приложениями. Она включала в себя копию установленных процедур НАСА для облегчения высокого давления в криогенной емкости с кислородом, в том числе: Включение четырех танковых нагревателей и выключение вентиляторов; Натяжение двух автоматических выключателей отопителя, чтобы открыть, чтобы удалить источник энергии; Выполнение 2-минутную продувку, или непосредственно открыв O 2 клапана. Телеметрические параметры кислородного бак разрыв инцидента, с вставкой изображением клапана сброса давления Эта процедура была разработана, чтобы предотвратить отказ аппаратных средств, так что лунное приземление миссия может быть продолжена. В Mission Operations Report Apollo 13 пересчитывает, как мастер осторожность и предупреждающий сигнал были выключена в течение предыдущего низкого давления чтения на водородном баке 2, и поэтому не вызывает, чтобы обратить внимание на показание давления высокого содержания кислорода. Кислородный бак 2 был не только давление в резервуаре, что не удалось во время этой миссии. До аварии, экипаж перенес запланированную запись в лунный модуль вперед на три часа. Это было сделано, чтобы получить более ранний взгляд на показании давления сверхкритического гелия (SHE) бак на стадии LM спуска, который был подозреваемым, так как перед запуском. После решения прерывания, давление гелия продолжает расти и ЦУП предсказал время, что диск лопнул бы привести к разрыву. Гелий бак лопнул диск разорван на 108: 54, после лунного облета. Изгнание обратного направления пассивного тепловой контроля (PTC) рулон ( по прозвищу «барбекю рулон»). Хотя расследование плат сделал воссоздает отказ кислородного бака, он не сообщал о каких-либо экспериментах, которые показали бы, насколько эффективны процедуры Криогенных Сбоев были предотвратить сбой системы с помощью электрических цепей обесточивания нагревателя и вентилятора. Корректирующие действия Кислородный бак был переработан, с термостатами модернизированы для обработки надлежащего напряжения. Нагреватели были сохранены, так как они были необходимы для поддержания давления кислорода. Перемешивание вентиляторы, с их незакрытыми двигателями, были удалены, что не означает количество кислорода датчик больше не точен. Это потребовало добавления третьего резервуара так, что ни один танк не будет опускаться ниже наполовину. Вся электропроводка в энергосистеме отсек был обшит из нержавеющей стали, и кислорода количество зондов были изменены из алюминия, нержавеющей стали. Клапаны подачи топливного элемента кислорода были переработаны, чтобы изолировать тефлоновое покрытие провода от кислорода. Системы мониторинга управления полетами космических аппаратов и были изменены, чтобы дать более быстрые и видимые предупреждения аномалий. примечания Миссия Потому что Аполлон 13 следовали свободной траектории возвращения, его высота над стороной Луны была примерно 100 км (60 миль) больше, чем высоты орбиты на остальных Аполлонах лунных миссий. Луна была почти в апогее во время миссии (как это и было во время полетов Apollo 10 и Apollo 15), что также увеличивало расстояние от Земли. Сочетание этих двух эффектов гарантирует, что Apollo 13 удерживает абсолютный рекорд высоты для пилотируемых космических кораблей, достигая расстояния 400, 171 километров (248, 655 миль) от Земли на 7:21 вечера EST, 14 апреля 1970 года. A7L скафандр предназначен для ношения на лунную поверхность по Ловеллам были бы первым, чтобы показать красные полосы на руки, ноги, лунную шлют сборку EVA, и жизнеобеспечение рюкзак. Это произошло потому, что персонал управления полетов смотреть видео каналов Аполлосов 11 и 12 были проблемы различения космонавтов в то время как оба были их шлют зонты вниз. Красные полосы были использованы для остальных рейсов Apollo, в программе Space Shuttle, а также в Международной космической станции. Аполлон 13 Миссия была названа «успешным отказом» от Ловелл, из-за успешное безопасное возвращением космонавтов, но не смогла высадку на Луну. Он также был назван «звездный час НАСА. » Президент Никсон награжден Президентской медалью свободы экипажу и миссии операций команды Apollo 13 за свои действия во время миссии. Gauge Эксперимент с холодным катодом (CCGE), которая была частью ALSEP на Apollo 13 никогда не летал снова. Это была версия с холодным катодом Ион Gauge (CCIG), который показал на Apollo 12, Apollo 14 и Apollo 15. CCGE был разработан в качестве автономной версии CCIG. В других миссиях CCIG был связан как часть надтепловых ионов детектора (боковой). Из - за прерванную посадку, этот эксперимент не был развернут. Другие эксперименты включали в ALSEP Аполлон 13 включала эксперимент теплового потока (HFE), пассивный Сейсмический эксперимент (PSE) и заряженный Эксперимент частиц Lunar среды (CPLEE). Зубной налет и знаки Копия доски с именем Свиджерто, которая должна была заменить одну присоединенные к Водолею, который имел название Маттинкло Оригинальная лунная табличка прикреплены к передней посадочной ноге Водолея носила имя Маттинкло, поэтому замену табличка с именем Свиджерты была перевозится в кабине, для Ловелл, чтобы поместить над другими после того, как он спустился по лестнице. Он держал доску в качестве сувенира. В своей книге Затерянный Moon (позже переименована Apollo 13), Ловелл заявил, что, кроме налета и несколько других частей, единственным сувениром он обладает письмо от Чарльза Линдберга. Пластырь экипажа Apollo 13 изображены три летающих лошадей, как «колесница» Аполлон через пространство. С учетом военно - морского флот фоном Ловелл, логотип также включены девизами « Ex Luna, Scientia » ( «С Луной, знание»), заимствованной из Военно - морской академии США девиза «s, „ Ex Scientia Tridens “(„От знания, морская сила“). Номер миссии появились римские цифры, как Аполлон XIII. Патч не должен быть изменен после замены Маттинкла, так как это один из только два Аполлона миссия знаки, другой являющийся Apollo 11-не включать имена экипажа. Он был разработан художником Lumen Мартин Винтер, который на основе его на фреске он сделал для The St. Regis Hotel в Нью - Йорке. Фреска была позже куплена актер Том Хэнкс, который изображал Ловелл в фильме Аполлон 13, и теперь находится на стене ресторана недалеко от Чикаго, принадлежащей сыну Ловелла. Успешные эксперименты Несмотря на неудачу Аполлон 13 на посадку на Луне несколько экспериментов были проведены успешно, потому что они были начаты до или проводятся независимо от взрыва кислородного бака. Несколько экспериментов по изучению электрических явлений были проведены до и во время запуска Apollo 13. Эта информация была использована для лучшего понимания опасности запуска менее чем идеальных погодных условиях. Одиннадцать фотографии Земли были взяты в точно записанное время, чтобы изучить возможность использования геостационарных спутников для изучения высоты облаков. Apollo 13 в S-IVB третий этап был первым, чтобы быть намеренно врезался в поверхность Луны, в качестве активного сейсмического эксперимента, который измеряется его воздействие с сейсмометром оставили на поверхности Луны экипажем Аполлона 12. (S-IVBs из предыдущие четыре лунных миссий были отправлены в солнечную орбиту наземного управления после использования. ) «Буксировка сборы» В качестве шутки после успешных приводнения Аполлон 13, в Grumman Aerospace Corporation пилот Сэм Гринберг (который помог со стратегией повторной маршрутизации мощности от LM к искалеченной CM) выдал счет - фактуру неискренний за $ 400, 540. 05 в североамериканском Rockwell, Пратт и Уитни, и Beech Aircraft, премьер и субподрядчики для CSM, для «буксировки» на искалеченных судах большого части пути до Луны и обратно. Эта цифра была основана на приблизительно 400, 001 миль (643739 км) в $ 1, 00 за милю, плюс $ 4, 00 для первой мили. Дополнительные $ 536, 05 был включен для зарядки аккумулятора, кислорода и «дополнительного гостя в комнате» (Свиджерт). 20% «коммерческая скидка», а также дополнительно скидка 2%, если в Северной Америке были платить наличными, уменьшил сумму до $ 312, 421. 24. Североамериканский отклоненного платеж, отметив, что он переправил три предыдущую LmS Grumman к Луне (Apollo 10, Apollo 11 и Apollo 12), без таких взаимных обвинений. расположение космических аппаратов Командный модуль Apollo 13 на выставке в Cosmosphere в Хатчинсон, Канзас Оболочка командного модуля был ранее в воздухе Музей де l'и де l'Espace, в Париже. Внутренние компоненты были удалены в ходе расследования несчастного случая и вновь в шаблонный BP-1102a, водное обучение выхода модуль; и были впоследствии выставлены в Музее естественной истории и науки в Луисвилле, штат Кентукки, до 2000 года командного модуля и внутренние компоненты были собраны, и Odyssey в настоящее время выставлены на Cosmosphere в Хатчинсон, штат Канзас. Лунный модуль сгорел в атмосфере Земли 17 апреля 1970 года, будучи нацелены войти через Тихий океан, чтобы уменьшить вероятность заражения от SNAP 27 радиоизотопный термоэлектрический генератор (РИТЭГ) на борту. Предназначен для питания миссии ALSEP, РТГ выжила спускаемого (как задумано) и приземлился в желоба Тонга. В то время как он будет оставаться радиоактивными в течение нескольких тысяч лет, как представляется, не будет выпускать какой - либо из его 3, 9 кг радиоактивного плутония-238. Лунный скафандр шлем Ловелл, один из его перчаток, и табличка, которая была предназначена, чтобы остаться на Луне на выставке в Планетарий Адлера в Чикаго, штат Иллинойс. Apollo 13 S-IVB с блоком приборов ориентировались к сбою на поверхность Луны 14 апреля, обеспечивая сигнал для Apollo 12 Пассивных сейсмического эксперимента. Запись воздействия Apollo 13 S-IVB на поверхности Луны, как обнаруживается Apollo 12 Эксперимент Пассивный сейсмической Кратер, оставленный воздействием S-IVB в Популярная культура и средства массовой информации 1974 фильм Хьюстон, у нас проблемы, в то время как установить вокруг инцидента Apollo 13, это вымышленная драма о кризисах, с которыми сталкиваются наземным персоналом, когда чрезвычайная ситуация нарушает их графики работы и создает дополнительную нагрузку на их жизнь; только несколько новостных клипов и торжественный голос сделка рассказчика с реальными проблемами. «Хьюстон... у нас есть проблемы» было также название эпизода BBC документального сериала жизни у кола, транслировался в марте 1978 г. Это была точной, если упрощен, реконструкция событий. Ловелл был упомянут в 1991 году журналист Джеффри Kluger о сотрудничестве на неигрового счет миссии. Результирующая книга, Потерянная Луна: Perilous Voyage Аполлона 13, была опубликована в 1994 году. В следующем году, в 1995 году, экранизация книги, Аполлон 13, был выпущен, режиссер Рон Ховард и в главной роли Тома Хэнкса как Ловелл, Билл Пэкстон, как Haise, Кевин Бэкон как Суигерт, Гэри Синиз как Маттингли, Эд Харрис в полете режиссер Джин Кранц, и Куинлан, как Мэрилин Ловелл. Джеймс Ловеллы, Евгений Кранц и другие руководители заявили, что этот фильм изобразил событие миссии с достаточной степенью точности, учитывая, что некоторые драматические лицензии были приняты. Например, фильм изменяет напряженное известного наблюдения Ловелла на оригинальные слова Свиджерт в от «Хьюстон, у нас были проблемы», в « Хьюстон, у нас проблема ». Фильм был номинирован на несколько наград Академии, в том числе за лучший фильм, лучший актер второго плана (Harris) и Лучшая актриса второго плана (Куинлан). В 1998 году минисериала от Земли до Луны, сопродюсер Хэнкса и Говард, миссия экранизирована в эпизоде «Мы прерываем эту программу». Вместо того, чтобы показать инцидент с точки зрения экипажа, как и в Apollo 13 художественного фильма, он вместо этого представлен от Земли, связанной точки зрения телевизионных репортеров конкурирующего для освещения мероприятия. В 2008 году, интерактивное театрализованное шоу под названием Apollo 13: ЦУП Премьера в BATS театре в Веллингтоне, Новая Зеландия. Производство точно воссозданы управления полетом консолей и зрители стали частью сюжетной линии. Шоу также фигурирует «гостевой» астронавт каждую ночь: член общества, который подходит и среди других обязанностей, шевелили баллоны с кислородом и сказал, что линия «Хьюстон, у нас была проблема. » Это «замена» астронавт был кивок Джек Суигерт, который заменил Маттингли незадолго до запуска в 1970 году производство гастролировал в других городах широко в Новой Зеландии и Австралии в 2010-2011 гг. Производство было запланировано на поездку в США в 2012 году. В легендах ЦА завтрашнего дня эпизода «Moonshot, » взрыв кислородного баллона предотвращен, когда Eobard Thawne маскирует себя как Суигерто, с тем чтобы получить кусок Копья Судьбы, которая была скрыта в полюсном части американского флаг посаженного июля 21, 1969. Thawne и Рэй Палмер аварии земли спускаемый аппарат на поверхность Луны. В ноябре 2011 года, ноутбук, содержащий перечень Ловелл используется для расчета траектории, чтобы получить поврежденный космический корабль, Аполлон 13, обратно на Землю, а также рукописные расчеты по Ловелл, была продана с аукциона по Auctions Heritage за $ 388375. НАСА сделало запрос по электронной почте с просьбой Heritage, если Ловеллы имели четкое название на ноутбук, заявив, что НАСА не было «ничего, чтобы указать» агентство когда - либо передана в собственности контрольного списка в Ловеллы. В январе 2012 года Heritage заявил, что продажа была помещена на удержание после НАСА начало расследование было ли это свойство астронавта продать. Смотрите также Список искусственных объектов на Луне Рекомендации Эта статья включает в себя  материалы для общественности области с веб - сайтов или документов Национального управления по аэронавтике и исследованию космического пространства. дальнейшее чтение Латтимер, Дик (1985). Все мы сделали лететь на Луну. История-живая серия. 1. Предисловие Джеймс А. Мишнером (1 - е изд. ). Alachua, FL: Тихие Eagle Press. ISBN   0-9611228-0-3. LCCN   85222271. внешняя ссылка Викискладе есть медиафайлы по теме Apollo 13. «Аполлон 13» в энциклопедии Astronautica «Аполлон-13 (29») в НАСА, резюме миссии Касс, Стефан (1 апреля 2005). «Аполлон 13, у нас есть решение». IEEE Spectrum. Нью - Йорк: Институт инженеров по электротехнике и радиоэлектронике: Часть 1 из 3. Проверены 5 июля, +2013. Аткинсон, Нэнси (8 апреля 2010). «13 вещей, которые Сохраненный Аполлон 13». Вселенная Сегодня. Проверено 25 апреля 2012. Как сообщает NASA Apollo 13 Пресс - кит (PDF), NASA, релиз № 70-50K, 2 апреля 1970 Apollo Космический корабль - хронология NASA SP-4009, т. IV, пт. 3 "Таблица 2-41 Apollo 13 Характеристики" из НАСА Historical книги данных: Том III: Программы и проекты 1969-1978 Линда Neuman Ezell, НАСА История серии, NASA SP-4012, (1988) "Apollo Program Краткий отчет" (PDF), NASA, АО-09423, апрель 1975 «Аполлон 13: Лунные эксперименты по разведке и фотографии Резюме» (Original миссия, как и планировалось) (PDF) NASA, февраль 1970 Аполлон 13 космических аппаратов по расследованию происшествий (PDF) NASA, июнь 1970 Доклад Совета Apollo Review 13, (PDF) NASA, июнь 1970 "Аполлон 13 Технический воздух-Ground Voice транскрипция" (PDF) NASA, апрель 1970 мультимедиа «Космические Педагоги Справочник Аполлон 13" в НАСА «Джин Кранц Устная история Интервью, часть 2» в C-SPAN; интервью, проведенного 28 апреля 1999 Короткий фильм Аполлон 13 «Хьюстон, у нас проблемы» доступна для свободного скачивания на интернет - Архиве «Аполлон 13: ЖИЗНЬ С Ловелл семьи во время„Finest Hour НАСА“» - слайд - шоу по жизни журнала «Аполлон 13: Finest Hour НАСА» - слайд - шоу по жизни журнала в Internet Archive «Аполлон 13: Триумф на Dark Side» является эпизодом Людей, Moment, машины, документального цикла 2006, который был показан на The History Channel Аполлон 13: Неудача не вариант документального фильма о YouTube «Аполлон 13 транскриптов на Spacelog» «Аполлон 13 -„Хьюстон, у нас были проблемы“» Аудио Аполлон 13 миссии в течение первых моментов неприятности Полная послеполетная пресс - конференции, 21 апреля 1970: Часть 1 - Часть 2.

Apollo 13 watch for free. Apollo 13 Watch free. Apollo 13 Watch. And as I recall, all over the world people were bawling with relief when those 3 chutes were suddenly visible. oh wow, this was intense at the time. Thanks for the memory. I went to see this movie in 1968 (Christmas Eve) and when I got home, I turned on the T.V. and Apollo 8 was broadcasting their Christmas message from the moon (First time for man to leave Earth. It was a weird feeling. I had just seen the greatest Sci Fy movie I had ever seen and now was seeing life imitate art. It was kind of a Twilight Zone experience. Needless to say, 2001 is a special movie to me.

Excellent movie, highly ptivating, filled with humor, drama and so very touching. Im now 65, and remember this happening like it was yesterday, everybody was on the edge of their seat praying that they would get back to earth. When they did, it was like the Whole World just won the Super Bowl. Truly amazing. Still after all these years with the technology of the time and everything that happened the entire mission it is still absolutely amazing that they were able to almost park the capsule on the deck of the carrier and practically on time. AMERICA AT ITS FINEST. Hi Miss.

Wow this stressed me out! But i now really realize how smart NASA engineers are scientists are

Apollo 13 Watch free web. Summary of Apollo 13:  Review from Amazon- It had been less that a year since man first walked on the moon, but as far as the American public was concerned, Apollo 13 was just another “routine” space flight – until these words pierced the immense void of space: Houston, we have a problem. Stranded 205, 000 miles from Earth in a crippled spacecraft, astronauts Jim Lovell (Hanks), Fred Haise (Paxton) and Jack Swigert (Bacon) fight a desperate battle to survive. Meanwhile, at Mission Control, astronaut Ken Mattingly (Sinise), flight director Gene Kranz (Harris), and a heroic ground crew race against time – and odds – to bring them home. It’s a breathtaking adventure that tells a story of courage, faith and ingenuity that is all the more remarkable because it is true! Focus Questions for Square Peg in a Round Hole: 1. A lot of people who work at NASA aren’t scientists, they are engineers. Based on the what you saw on the video clip, what do engineers do? 2. What problems can engineers solve in our everyday lives? Classroom Resources: 14 Grand Challenges in Engineering What’s the Difference Between and Architect and an Engineer? Engineering is Elementary Teach Engineering Dear Readers: How could you use this video clip in your classroom?

Apollo 13 Watch free web site. Critics Consensus In recreating the troubled space mission, Apollo 13 pulls no punches: it's a masterfully told drama from director Ron Howard, bolstered by an ensemble of solid performances. 95% TOMATOMETER Total Count: 88 87% Audience Score User Ratings: 432, 838 Apollo 13 Ratings & Reviews Explanation Apollo 13 Photos Movie Info "Houston, we have a problem. " Those words were immortalized during the tense days of the Apollo 13 lunar mission crisis in 1970, events recreated in this epic historical drama from Ron Howard. Astronaut Jim Lovell (Tom Hanks) leads command module pilot Jack Swigert (Kevin Bacon) and lunar module driver Fred Haise (Bill Paxton) on what is slated as NASA's third lunar landing mission. All goes smoothly until the craft is halfway through its mission, when an exploding oxygen tank threatens the crew's oxygen and power supplies. As the courageous astronauts face the dilemma of either suffocating or freezing to death, Mattingly and Mission Control leader Gene Kranz (Ed Harris) struggle to find a way to bring the crew back home, all the while knowing that the spacemen face probable death once the battered ship reenters the Earth's atmosphere. The film received an overwhelmingly enthusiastic critical response and a Best Picture nomination, but lost that Oscar to another (very different) historical epic, Mel Gibson's Braveheart. In 2002, the movie was released in IMAX theaters as Apollo 13: The IMAX Experience, with a pared-down running time of 116 minutes in order to meet the technical requirements of the large-screen format. ~ Don Kaye, Rovi Rating: PG (language and emotional intensity) Genre: Directed By: Written By: In Theaters: Jun 30, 1995 wide On Disc/Streaming: Sep 7, 2004 Runtime: 140 minutes Studio: Universal Pictures Cast News & Interviews for Apollo 13 Critic Reviews for Apollo 13 Audience Reviews for Apollo 13 Apollo 13 Quotes Movie & TV guides.

Written By William Broyles, Jr. (screenplay), Al Reinert (screenplay), Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger (book "Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13") Release Date 30 June 1995 (USA) Rating Budget $62, 000, 000 (estimated) Gross $334, 100, 000 (worldwide) Apollo 13 is a 1995 American docudrama film directed by Ron Howard. The film stars Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Gary Sinise, Kathleen Quinlan and Ed Harris. The screenplay by William Broyles, Jr. and Al Reinert, that dramatizes the 1970 Apollo 13 lunar mission, is an adaptation of the book Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13 by astronaut Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger. The film depicts astronauts Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise aboard Apollo 13 for America's third Moon landing mission. En route, an on-board explosion deprives their spacecraft of most of its oxygen supply and electric power, forcing NASA's flight controllers to abort the Moon landing, and turning the mission into a struggle to get the three men home safely. Howard went to great lengths to create a technically accurate movie, employing NASA's technical assistance in astronaut and flight controller training for his cast, and even obtaining permission to film scenes aboard a reduced gravity aircraft for realistic depiction of the "weightlessness" experienced by the astronauts in space. Released in the United States on June 30, 1995, Apollo 13 garnered critical acclaim and was nominated for many awards, with nine Academy Awards including Best Picture; it won for Best Film Editing and Best Sound. [1] In total, the film grossed over $355 million worldwide during its theatrical releases. Plot Edit On July 20, 1969, veteran astronaut Jim Lovell ( Tom Hanks) hosts a party for other astronauts and their families, who watch on television as their colleague Neil Armstrong takes his first steps on the Moon during the Apollo 11 mission. Lovell, who orbited the Moon on Apollo 8, tells his wife Marilyn ( Kathleen Quinlan) that he intends to return, to walk on its surface. On October 30, while giving a VIP tour of NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building, Lovell is informed by his boss Deke Slayton that he and his crew will fly the Apollo 13 mission instead of Apollo 14. Lovell, Ken Mattingly ( Gary Sinise), and Fred Haise ( Bill Paxton) begin training for their new mission. Days before launch, it is discovered that Mattingly was exposed to measles, and the flight surgeon demands his replacement with Mattingly's backup, Jack Swigert ( Kevin Bacon), as a safety precaution. Lovell resists breaking up his team, but relents after Slayton gives him the choice of either accepting the switch, or else being bumped to a later mission. As the launch date approaches, Marilyn's fears for her husband's safety manifest in nightmares, but she goes to Cape Kennedy the night before launch, to see him off despite her misgivings. On April 11, 1970, Apollo 13 Flight Director Gene Kranz ( Ed Harris) gives the go-ahead from Houston's Mission Control Center for launch. As the Saturn V rocket climbs into the sky, an engine on the second stage cuts off prematurely, but the craft successfully reaches Earth orbit. After the third stage fires, sending Apollo 13 on a trajectory to the Moon, Swigert docks the Command/Service Module Odyssey with the Lunar Module Aquarius, and pulls it away from the spent stage. Three days into the mission, the crew send a live television transmission from Odyssey, but the networks, believing the public now regards lunar missions as routine, decline to carry the broadcast live. Swigert is told to perform a standard housekeeping procedure of stirring the two liquid oxygen tanks in the Service Module. When he flips the switch, one tank explodes, emptying its contents into space and sending the craft tumbling. The other tank is soon found to be leaking, prompting Mission Control to abort the Moon landing, and forcing Lovell and Haise to hurriedly power up Aquarius as a "lifeboat" for the return home, while Swigert shuts down Odyssey before its battery power runs out. On Earth, Kranz rallies his team to do what is necessary to get the astronauts home safely, declaring "failure is not an option. " Controller John Aaron recruits Mattingly to help him figure out how to restart Odyssey for the final return to Earth. As Swigert and Haise watch the Moon passing beneath them, Lovell laments his lost chance of walking on its surface, then turns their attention to the task of getting home. With Aquarius running on minimum systems to conserve power, the crew is soon subjected to freezing conditions. Swigert suspects Mission Control is unable to get them home and is withholding this from them. In a fit of rage, Haise blames Swigert's inexperience for the accident; the ensuing argument is quickly squelched by Lovell. When the carbon dioxide exhaled by the astronauts reaches the Lunar Module's filter capacity and approaches dangerous levels, an engineering team quickly invents a way to make the Command Module's square filters work in the Lunar Module's round receptacles. With the guidance systems on Aquarius shut down, and despite Haise's fever and miserable living conditions, the crew succeeds in making a difficult but vital course correction by manually igniting the Lunar Module's engine. Mattingly and Aaron struggle to find a way to power up the Command Module with its limited available power, but finally succeed and transmit the procedures to Swigert, who successfully restarts Odyssey by transmitting extra power from Aquarius. When the Service Module is jettisoned, the crew finally see the extent of the damage and prepare for re-entry, unsure whether Odyssey' s heat shield is intact. If it is not, they will burn up. They release Aquarius and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere in Odyssey. After a tense, longer than normal period of radio silence due to ionization blackout, the astronauts report all is well and splash down in the Pacific Ocean. The three men are brought aboard the aircraft carrier USS Iwo Jima. As the astronauts are given a hero's welcome on deck, Lovell's narration describes the events that follow their return from space—including the investigation into the explosion, and the subsequent careers and lives of Haise, Swigert, Mattingly and Kranz—and ends wondering when mankind will return to the Moon. Videos Edit Cast Edit Top to bottom: Hanks, Bacon and Paxton, who portray astronauts Lovell, Swigert and Haise respectively. Tom Hanks as Apollo 13 Commander Jim Lovell. Jim Lovell stated that before the book was even written, the rights were being shopped to potential buyers [2] and that his first reaction was that actor Kevin Costner would be a good choice to play him. [4] However, by the time Howard acquired the director's position, Costner's name never came up in serious discussion, and Hanks had already been interested in doing a film based on Apollo 13. When Hanks' representative informed him that there was a script being passed around, he had the script sent to him. [2] John Travolta was initially offered the role of Lovell, but declined. [5] Gary Sinise as Apollo 13 prime Command Module Pilot (CMP) Ken Mattingly. Sinise was invited by Howard to read for any of the characters, and chose Mattingly. [2] Kevin Bacon as Apollo 13 backup CMP Jack Swigert. Bill Paxton as Apollo 13 Lunar Module Pilot Fred Haise. Ed Harris as White team Flight Director Gene Kranz. Harris described the film as "cramming for a final exam". Harris described Gene Kranz as "corny and like a dinosaur", but was respected by the crew. [2] Kathleen Quinlan as Lovell's wife Marilyn. Chris Ellis as Director of Flight Crew Operations Deke Slayton. Joe Spano as "NASA Director", a composite character based loosely on Chris Kraft. Marc McClure as Black team Flight Director Glynn Lunney. Clint Howard as White team EECOM (Electrical, Environmental and Consumables Manager) Sy Liebergot. Ray Mckinnon as White team FIDO (Flight Dyamics Officer). Loren Dean as EECOM John Aaron. Xander Berkeley as "Henry Hurt", a fictional NASA Office of Public Affairs staff member. [6] David Andrews as Apollo 12 Commander Pete Conrad Christian Clemenson as Flight surgeon Dr. Charles Berry Ben Marley as Apollo 13 backup Commander John Young Brett Cullen as CAPCOM Bill Pogue Tracy Reiner as Haise's then-wife Mary Mary Kate Schellhardt as Lovell's older daughter Barbara. Max Elliott Slade as Lovell's older son James (Jay), who attended military school at the time of the flight. Emily Ann Lloyd as Lovell's younger daughter Susan. Miko Hughes as Lovell's younger son Jeffrey. Thom Barry as an orderly at Blanch's retirement home. Chauntal Lewis as Roxanne Strybos (Susan's Friend) (uncredited) The real Jim Lovell appears as captain of the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima. Horror film director Roger Corman, a mentor of Howard, appears as a congressman being given a VIP tour by Lovell of the Saturn V Vehicle Assembly Building, as it had become something of a tradition for Corman to make a cameo appearance in his proteges' films. [7] The real Marilyn Lovell appeared among the spectators during the launch sequence. CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite appears in archive news footage and can be heard in newly recorded announcements, some of which he edited himself to sound more authentic. In addition to his brother, Clint Howard, several other members of Ron Howard's family appear in the movie: Rance Howard (his father) appears as the Lovell family minister. Jean Speegle Howard (his mother) appears as Lovell's mother Blanch. Cheryl Howard (his wife) and Bryce Dallas Howard (his daughter) appear as uncredited background performers in the scene where the astronauts wave goodbye to their families. Brad Pitt was offered a role in the film, but turned it down to star in Se7en. [9] Reportedly, the real Pete Conrad expressed interest in appearing in the film. Jeffrey Kluger appears as a television reporter. Production Edit Pre-production and props Edit While planning the film, director Ron Howard decided that every shot of the film would be original and that no mission footage would be used. [10] The spacecraft interiors were constructed by the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center's Space Works, who also restored the Apollo 13 Command Module. Two individual Lunar Modules and two Command Modules were constructed for filming. While each was a replica, composed of some of the original Apollo materials, they were built so that different sections were removable, which enabled filming to take place inside the capsules. Space Works also built modified Command and Lunar Modules for filming inside a Boeing KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft, and the pressure suits worn by the actors, which are exact reproductions of those worn by the Apollo astronauts, right down to the detail of being airtight. When the actors put the suits on with their helmets locked in place, air was pumped into the suits to cool them down and allow them to breathe, exactly as in launch preparations for the real Apollo missions. [11] The real Mission Control consist of two control rooms located on the second and third floors of Building 30 at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. NASA offered the use of the control room for filming but Howard declined, opting instead to make his own replica from scratch. [10] Production designer Michael Corenblith and set decorator Merideth Boswell were in charge of the construction of the Mission Control set at Universal Studios. The set was equipped with giant rear-screen projection capabilities and a complex set of computers with individual video feeds to all the flight controller stations. The actors playing the flight controllers were able to communicate with each other on a private audio loop. [11] The Mission Control room built for the film was on the ground floor. [10] One NASA employee who was a consultant for the film said that the set was so realistic that he would leave at the end of the day and look for the elevator before remembering he was not in Mission Control. By the time the film was made, the USS Iwo Jima had been scrapped, so her sister ship, the USS New Orleans, was used as the recovery ship instead. [10] "For actors, being able to actually shoot in zero gravity as opposed to being in incredibly painful and uncomfortable harnesses for special effects shots was all the difference between what would have been a horrible moviemaking experience as opposed to the completely glorious one that it actually was. " —Tom Hanks [11] Howard anticipated difficulty in portraying weightlessness in a realistic manner. He discussed this with Steven Spielberg, who suggested using a KC-135 airplane, which can be flown in such a way as to create about 23 seconds of weightlessness, a method NASA has always used to train its astronauts for space flight. Howard obtained NASA's permission and assistance in filming in the realistic conditions aboard multiple KC-135 flights. [12] Cast training and filming Edit To prepare for their roles in the film, Hanks, Paxton, and Bacon all attended the U. S. Space Camp in Huntsville, Alabama. While there, astronauts Jim Lovell and David Scott, commander of Apollo 15, did actual training exercises with the actors inside a simulated Command Module and Lunar Module. The actors were also taught about each of the 500 buttons, toggles, and switches used to operate the spacecraft. The actors then traveled to Johnson Space Center in Houston where they flew in NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft to simulate weightlessness in outer space. While in the KC-135, filming took place in bursts of 25 seconds, the length of each period of weightless that the plane could produce. The filmmakers eventually flew 612 parabolas which added up to a total of three hours and 54 minutes of weightlessness. Parts of the Command Module, Lunar Module and the tunnel that connected them were built by production designer Michael Corenblith, art directors David J. Bomba and Bruce Alan Miller and their crew to fit inside the KC-135. Filming in such an environment, while never done before for a film, was a tremendous time saver. In the KC-135, the actors moved wherever they wanted, surrounded by floating props; the camera and cameraman were weightless so filming could take place on any axis from which a shot could be set up. In Los Angeles, Ed Harris and all the actors portraying flight controllers enrolled in a Flight Controller School led by Gerry Griffin, an Apollo 13 flight director, and flight controller Jerry Bostick. The actors studied audiotapes from the mission, reviewed hundreds of pages of NASA transcripts and attended a crash course in physics. [10] [11] Astronaut Dave Scott was impressed with their efforts, stating that each actor was determined to make every scene technically correct, word for word. [2] Soundtrack Edit Apollo 13 (film) {{{artist}}} Professional ratings Review scores Source Allmusic [13] [14] SoundtrackNet [15] Tracksounds [16] The score to Apollo 13 was composed and conducted by James Horner. The soundtrack was released in 1995 by MCA Records and has seven tracks of score, eight period songs used in the film, and seven tracks of dialogue by the actors at a running time of nearly seventy-three minutes. The music also features solos by vocalist Annie Lennox and Tim Morrison on the trumpet. The score was a critical success and garnered Horner an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score. [17] Apollo 13: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack No. Title Length 1. "Main Title" 1:32 2. "One Small Step" 0:42 3. "Night Train" (performed by James Brown) 3:27 4. "Groovin'" (performed by The Young Rascals) 2:26 5. "Somebody to Love" (performed by Jefferson Airplane) 2:55 6. "I Can See for Miles" (performed by The Who) 4:09 7. "Purple Haze" (performed by Jimi Hendrix) 2:48 8. "Launch Control" 3:28 9. "All Systems Go/The Launch" 6:39 10. "Welcome to Apollo 13" 0:38 11. "Spirit in the Sky" (performed by Norman Greenbaum) 3:50 12. "House Cleaning/Houston, We Have a Problem" 1:34 13. "Master Alarm" 2:54 14. "What's Going On? " 0:34 15. "Into the L. E. M. " 3:43 16. "Out of Time/Shut Her Down" 2:20 17. "The Darkside of the Moon" (performed by Annie Lennox) 5:09 18. "Failure is Not an Option" 1:18 19. "Honky Tonkin'" (performed by Hank Williams) 2:42 20. "Blue Moon" (performed by The Mavericks) 21. "Waiting for Disaster/A Privilege" 0:43 22. "Re-Entry & Splashdown" 9:05 23. "End Titles" (performed by Annie Lennox) 5:34 Release Edit The film was released on 30 June 1995 in North America and on 22 September 1995 in the UK. In 2002 the film was re-released in IMAX. It was the first film to be digitally remastered using IMAX DMR technology. [18] Box-office performance Edit The film was a box-office success, gaining $355, 237, 933 worldwide. [19] The film's widest release was 2, 347 theaters. [19] The film's opening weekend and the latter two weeks placed it at #1 with a US gross of $25, 353, 380, which made up 14. 7% of the total US gross. [19] Apollo 13 box office revenue Source Gross ( USD)% Total All time rank (unadjusted) US $173, 837, 933 [19] 48. 9% 126 [19] Non-US $181, 400, 000 [19] 51. 1% N/A Worldwide $355, 237, 933 [19] 100. 0% 140 [19] Reception Edit Apollo 13 received very positive reviews from film critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that the film has an overall approval rating of 97% based on 51 reviews, with a weighted average score of 8/10. [20] At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized 0–100 rating to reviews from mainstream critics, calculated an average score of 77 based on 22 reviews. [21] Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film in his review saying: "A powerful story, one of the year's best films, told with great clarity and remarkable technical detail, and acted without pumped-up histrionics. " [22] Richard Corliss from Time Magazine highly praised the film, saying: "From lift-off to splashdown, Apollo 13 gives one hell of a ride. " [23] Edward Guthmann of San Francisco Chronicle gave a mixed review and wrote: "I just wish that Apollo 13 worked better as a movie, and that Howard's threshold for corn, mush and twinkly sentiment weren't so darn wide. " [24] Peter Travers from Rolling Stone Magazine praised the film and wrote: "Howard lays off the manipulation to tell the true story of the near-fatal 1970 Apollo 13 mission in painstaking and lively detail. It's easily Howard's best film. " [25] Janet Maslin made the film an NYT Critics' Pick, calling it an “absolutely thrilling” film that “unfolds with perfect immediacy, drawing viewers into the nail-biting suspense of a spellbinding true story”. According to Maslin, “like "Quiz Show, " "Apollo 13" beautifully evokes recent history in ways that resonate strongly today. Cleverly nostalgic in its visual style (Rita Ryack's costumes are especially right), it harks back to movie making without phony heroics and to the strong spirit of community that enveloped the astronauts and their families. Amazingly, this film manages to seem refreshingly honest while still conforming to the three-act dramatic format of a standard Hollywood hit. It is far and away the best thing Mr. Howard has done (and " Far and Away " was one of the other kind). ” [26] Ron Howard stated that, after the first test preview of the film, one of the comment cards indicated "total disdain"; the audience member had written that it was a "typical Hollywood" ending and that the crew would never have survived. [27] Marilyn Lovell praised Quinlan's portrayal of her, stating she felt she could feel what Quinlan's character was going through, and remembered how she felt in her mind. [2] Home media Edit A 10th-anniversary DVD of the film was released in 2005; it included both the theatrical version and the IMAX version, along with several extras. [28] The IMAX version has a 1. 66:1 aspect ratio. [29] In 2006, Apollo 13 was released on HD DVD; on 13 April 2010, it was released on Blu-ray disc, on the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 13 accident (Central Standard Time). [28] Accolades Edit Year Award Category Recipient Result Ref. 1996 Academy Awards (1996) Best Film Editing Mike Hill and Daniel Hanley Won [1] Best Sound Rick Dior, Steve Pederson, Scott Millan, David MacMillan Best Actor in a Supporting Role Ed Harris (lost to Kevin Spacey in Usual Suspects) Nominated Best Actress in a Supporting Role Kathleen Quinlan (lost to Mira Sorvino in Mighty Aphrodite) Best Art Direction Michael Corenblith (art director), Merideth Boswell (set decorator) (lost to Restoration) Best Original Dramatic Score James Horner (lost to Il Postino) Best Picture Brian Grazer (lost to Braveheart) Best Visual Effects Robert Legato, Michael Kanfer, Leslie Ekker, Matt Sweeney (lost to Babe) Best Adapted Screenplay William Broyles Jr., Al Reinert (lost to Sense & Sensibility) American Cinema Editors (Eddies) Best Edited Feature Film Mike Hill, Daniel P. Hanley American Society of Cinematographers Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Dean Cundey BAFTA Film Awards Best Production Design Michael Corenblith Outstanding Achievement in Special Visual Effects Robert Legato, Michael Kanfer, Matt Sweeney, Leslie Ekker Best Cinematography Best Editing Mike Hill, Daniel Hanley David MacMillan, Rick Dior, Scott Millan, Steve Pederson Casting Society of America (Artios) Best Casting for Feature Film, Drama Jane Jenkins, Janet Hirshenson Chicago Film Critics Association Awards Apollo 13 Directors Guild of America Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Ron Howard, Carl Clifford, Aldric La'Auli Porter, Jane Paul Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Ed Harris as Gene Kranz Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Kathleen Quinlan as Marilyn Lovell Best Director – Motion Picture Ron Howard Best Motion Picture – Drama Heartland Film Festival Studio Crystal Heart Award Jeffrey Kluger Hugo Awards Best Dramatic Presentation MTV Movie Awards Best Male Performance Tom Hanks as Jim Lovell Best Movie PGA Golden Laurel Awards Motion Picture Producer of the Year Award Brian Grazer, Todd Hallowell Saturn Awards Best Action / Adventure / Thriller Film Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Outstanding Performance by a Cast Kevin Bacon, Tom Hanks, Ed Harris, Bill Paxton, Kathleen Quinlan and Gary Sinise Space Foundation's Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Award Best Family Feature – Drama [30] Writers Guild of America Awards Best Screenplay Adapted from Another Medium William Broyles Jr., Al Reinert Young Artist Awards 2005 American Film Institute AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes "Houston, we have a problem. " (#50) [31] 2006 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers Apollo 13 (#12) Technical and historical accuracy Edit The dialogue between ground control and the astronauts was taken verbatim from transcripts and recordings, with the exception of one of the taglines of the film, "Houston, we have a problem. " (This quote was voted #50 on the list " AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes ". ) According to the mission transcript, the actual words uttered by Jack Swigert were "I believe we've had a problem here. " (talking over Haise, who had started "Ok, Houston"). Ground control responded by saying "This is Houston, say again please. " Jim Lovell then repeated "Ah, Houston, we've had a problem. " [32] The tagline "Failure is not an option", stated in the film by Gene Kranz, also became very popular, but was not taken from the historical transcripts. The following story relates the origin of the phrase, from an email by Apollo 13 Flight Dynamics Officer Jerry Bostick: "As far as the expression 'Failure is not an option', you are correct that Kranz never used that term. In preparation for the movie, the script writers, Al Reinart and Bill Broyles, came down to Clear Lake to interview me on 'What are the people in Mission Control really like? ' One of their questions was 'Weren't there times when everybody, or at least a few people, just panicked? ' My answer was 'No, when bad things happened, we just calmly laid out all the options, and failure was not one of them. We never panicked, and we never gave up on finding a solution. ' I immediately sensed that Bill Broyles wanted to leave and assumed that he was bored with the interview. Only months later did I learn that when they got in their car to leave, he started screaming, 'That's it! That's the tag line for the whole movie, Failure is not an option. Now we just have to figure out who to have say it. ' Of course, they gave it to the Kranz character, and the rest is history. " [33] A DVD commentary track, recorded by Jim and Marilyn Lovell and included with both the original and 10th-anniversary editions, [28] mentions several inaccuracies included in the film, all done for reasons of artistic license: "We were working and watching the controls during that time. Because we came in shallow, it took us longer coming through the atmosphere where we had ionization. And the other thing was that we were just slow in answering. " —Jim Lovell, on the real reason for the delay in replying after Apollo 13's four-minute re-entry into Earth's atmosphere [34] In the film, Mattingly plays a key role in solving a power consumption problem that Apollo 13 was faced with as it approached re-entry. Lovell points out in his commentary that Mattingly was a composite of several astronauts and engineers—including Charles Duke (whose rubella led to Mattingly's grounding)—all of whom played a role in solving that problem. When Jack Swigert is getting ready to dock with the LM, a concerned NASA technician says: "If Swigert can't dock this thing, we don't have a mission. " Lovell and Haise also seem worried. In his DVD commentary, the real Jim Lovell says that if Swigert had been unable to dock with the LM, he or Haise could have done it. He also says that Swigert was a well-trained Command Module pilot and that no one was really worried about whether he was up to the job, [34] but he admitted that it made a nice sub-plot for the film. A scene set the night before the launch, showing the astronauts' family members saying their goodbyes while separated by a road, to reduce the possibility of any last-minute transmission of disease, depicted a tradition not begun until the Space Shuttle program. The film depicts Marilyn Lovell dropping her wedding ring down a shower drain. According to Jim Lovell, this did occur, [34] but the drain trap caught the ring and his wife was able to retrieve it. Lovell has also confirmed that the scene in which his wife had a nightmare about him being "sucked through an open door of a spacecraft into outer space" also occurred, though he believes the nightmare was prompted by her seeing a scene in Marooned, a 1969 film they saw three months before Apollo 13 blasted off. [34] See also Edit From the Earth to the Moon, a documentary mini-series based around the Apollo missions. Marooned, a 1969 film directed by John Sturges, about astronauts marooned in an Apollo Command/Service Module. References Edit Template:Include-NASA ↑ 1. 0 1. 1 Academy Awards, USA: 1996. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved on 8 April 2009. ↑ 2. 0 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 Lost Moon: The Triumph of Apollo 13. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ↑ Lost Moon: The Triumph of Apollo 13. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ↑ Film Casting that Might Have Been for John Travolta and Richard Gere. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ↑ The character in the film is a composite of protocol officer Bob McMurrey, who relayed the request for permission to erect a TV tower to Marilyn Lovell, and an unnamed OPA staffer who made the request on the phone, to whom she personally denied it as Quinlan did to "Henry" in the film. "Henry" is also seen performing other OPA functions, such as conducting a press conference. Kluger, Jeffrey; Jim Lovell (July 1995). Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13, First Pocket Books printing, New York: Pocket Books, 118, 209–210, 387. ISBN 0-671-53464-5. ↑ Repertoire Of Horrors: The Films Of Roger Corman. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ↑ Brad Pitt - A Quick Overview. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ↑ 10. 0 10. 1 10. 2 10. 3 10. 4   Apollo 13: 2-Disc Anniversary Edition (Disc 1), Production Notes  [DVD].  Universal Studios. ↑ 11. 0 11. 1 11. 2 11. 3 Production Notes (Press Release). IMAX. Retrieved on 9 April 2009. ↑ Ron Howard Weightless Again Over Apollo 13's DGA Win. Retrieved on 16 December 2011. ↑ Apollo 13 at AllMusic ↑ Filmtracks review ↑ review ↑ Tracksounds review ↑ Apollo 13 soundtrack review at Filmtracks. Retrieved 24 February 2011. ↑ History of IMAX. Retrieved on 11 February 2011. ↑ 19. 0 19. 1 19. 2 19. 3 19. 4 19. 5 19. 6 19. 7 Apollo 13 (1995). Box Office Mojo. Retrieved on 9 April 2009. ↑ Rotten Tomatoes – Apollo 13. Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved on 24 August 2010. ↑ Apollo 13 Reviews. Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved on 25 September 2011. ↑ " Apollo 13: Roger Ebert ", Chicago Suntimes. Retrieved on 11 April 2009. ↑ " Apollo 13:Review ", Time Magazine, 3 July 1995.   [ dead link] ↑ Guthmann, Edward. " Apollo 13 Review: Story heroic, but it just doesn't fly. ", San Francisco Chronicle. ↑ Apollo 13 Review:Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone Magazine. Retrieved on 11 April 2009. ↑ Maslin, Janet (30 June 1995). Apollo 13, a Movie for the Fourth of July. NYT Critics' Pick. The New York Times. Retrieved on 30 September 2011. ↑ Howard, Ron (8 December 2008). A conversation about the film "Frost/Nixon". Charlie Rose show. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved on 8 December 2008. ↑ 28. 0 28. 1 28. 2 Apollo 13 Blu Ray Release. Universal Studios. Retrieved on 29 September 2011. ↑ Apollo 13 (DVD - 2005). Lethbridge Public Library. Retrieved on 30 December 2011. ↑ Symposium Awards. National Space Symposium. Retrieved on 26 April 2009. [ dead link] ↑ 31. 0 31. 1 AFI's 100 years... 100 quotes. AFI. Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved on 13 April 2009. ↑ Page 167 of Apollo 13's transcript on Spacelog. Retrieved on 10 June 2011. ↑ ORIGIN OF APOLLO 13 QUOTE: "FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION. ".. Retrieved on 4 April 2010. ↑ 34. 0 34. 1 34. 2 34. 3 William, Lena (19 July 1995). In Space, No Room For Fear. Retrieved on 30 September 2011.

Apollo 13 Watch free mobile. Apollo 13 watch free online. В такие же апрельские дни 1970 года разыгралась, наверное, самая драматическая история из всего, что происходило в космосе. Три астронавта, отправившиеся на Луну, оказались в смертельной опасности и были вынуждены трое суток возвращаться домой, преодолевая различные возникающие трудности. Это очень красивая история о том, как небольшие изменения в спецификации могут привести к большим проблемам, о слаженной работе сотен людей в ЦУПе в режиме аврала, о смелости и профессионализме. Причина Как это регулярно бывает в сложных технических системах и больших проектах, причина аварии была заложена ещё за годы до полёта "Аполлона-13", а сама авария сложилась из сложной цепочки событий, причем, отсутствие любого звена привело бы к отсутствию аварии. Конструкция Для того, чтобы понять, что произошло, необходимо рассказать о конструкции сервисного модуля "Аполлона": Энергетическая подсистема сервисного модуля "Аполлона" состояла из двух баков водорода, двух баков кислорода и трёх топливных элементов. Топливные элементы, потребляя водород и кислород, производили электроэнергию и воду, которая потреблялась экипажем для питья и оборудованием для охлаждения. Это была очень эффективная система, лучше, чем солнечные батареи, при условии, что полёт будет не дольше 2-3 недель. Это - бак кислорода сервисного модуля "Аполлона". Он настолько хорошо теплоизолирован, что способен хранить жидкий кислород годами. Жидкий кислород хранится в нем в состоянии сверхкритической жидкости, и, поэтому, проявляет свойства и жидкости и газа. Как известно, при расширении температура газа понижается. Теплоизоляция настолько хороша, что жидкий кислород охладился бы и потерял свехкритические свойства просто от расширения при нормальном расходе на топливные элементы. Поэтому пришлось ставить специальный нагреватель для поддержания требуемых температуры и давления. В невесомости жидкий кислород в сверхкритическом состоянии имел дурную привычку расслаиваться на жидкие и газообразные слои, что приводило к неверным показаниям датчика уровня. Поэтому пришлось ставить специальную турбинку для перемешивания кислорода, а для экипажа в набор "работы по дому" добавили процедуру перемешивания кислорода в баках, чтобы после неё ЦУП Хьюстона мог получить верные данные о количестве кислорода на борту. Небольшое изменение спецификации 1965 год. До полёта "Аполлона-13" ещё пять лет, до первого беспилотного полёта "AS-201" ещё год, даже программа "Джемини" только в этом году совершила свой первый пилотируемый полёт. Активно ведутся работы по кораблю "Аполлон". В силу огромности масштабов работы подрядчики NASA нанимают субподрядчиков для изготовления необходимых элементов. Сервисный модуль "Аполлона" делала "North American Aviation", а баки для него делал субподрядчик "Beech Aircraft". Поскольку топливные элементы выдавали 28 вольт напряжения, в спецификации к баку было указано рабочее напряжение 28 вольт. Однако, уже в процессе разработки сервисного модуля выяснилось, что при подготовке к старту "Аполлон" будет получать электричество от наземных генераторов стартового комплекса, а они имеют рабочее напряжение 65 вольт (совершенно нормальная ситуация, когда много квалифицированных людей делают большой проект, никаких шуток). Поэтому спецификацию пришлось переделывать. Инженеры "Beech Aircraft" изменили оборудование кислородного бака, но забыли изменить под новое напряжение всего одну вещь - контакты термостата. Они предназначены для размыкания цепи нагревателя при необходимости. Контроль качества на всех уровнях - "Beech Aircraft", "North American Aviation" и NASA не заметил эту ошибку. Переезд баков 1968 год. Баки, которые в итоге оказались на "Аполлоне-13", устанавливают в сервисный модуль, который станет частью "Аполлона-10". Поскольку в баки вносились изменения, спустя некоторое время было решено установить на "Аполлон-10" баки более новой версии, а уже установленные снять, модернизировать и поставить на другой сервисный модуль. В процессе снятия баков рабочие забыли открутить один болт, и лебедка, уже начавшая поднимать полку с баками, забуксовала и уронила баки обратно в стойку. Высота падения была смехотворная, всего 5 см., но для космической техники это серьезное ЧП. Происшествие задокументировали, провели испытания бака, посчитали его исправным и отправили на модернизацию. Очевидно, модернизация не была связана с серьезной разборкой бака (это важно для понимания следующего этапа). После модернизации баки поставили в сервисный модуль "Аполлона-13". Тот самый бак номер два на переднем плане, сфотографирован после установки. Взведение курка 27 марта 1970 года, две недели до старта "Аполлона-13". Производится т. н. тренировочный предстартовый отсчет - полная симуляция старта с заправкой корабля рабочими жидкостями, переходом на полётную атмосферу, короче, всё, кроме реальной команды "Зажигание". Симуляция прошла успешно за одним исключением - бак номер два отказался опорожняться после окончания испытаний. В процессе решения проблемы инженеры предположили, что при падении в 1968 году был поврежден нижний сливной штуцер. Теоретически это ЧП, надо переносить старт и менять баки. Но, с другой стороны, нижний сливной штуцер используется только один раз - при тренировочном предстартовом отсчете. В полёте он не нужен, и лететь можно и с неработающим штуцером. Поэтому для стравливания кислорода предложили использовать нагреватель, газифицировать кислород, который самотёком испарится через верхний штуцер. Решение согласовали с командиром корабля астронавтом Джимом Ловеллом. Джим подписал документы, исходя из имеющихся данных: предложенное решение является лучшим из придуманных, других неисправностей не обнаружено, в полёте нижний штуцер не нужен, а смена баков займет сорок пять часов, не считая проверки новых баков, что сорвет график предстартовой подготовки и отложит пуск на месяц. При включении нагревателя с наземным напряжением 65 вольт контакты термостата, рассчитанного на 28 вольт, приварились в положении "включено", нагреватель потерял возможность выключаться: Замкнувший контакт, фотография натурного эксперимента по воспроизведению аварии. Температурный сенсор внутри бака, сделанный для измерения рабочей температуры в районе -207 градусов, имел верхнюю границу измерений +27 градусов. Инженер, контролирующий работу, мог получить только два параметра - "нагреватель включен" и "температура не выше +27 градусов". В реальности постоянно включенный нагреватель быстро испарил кислород и, продолжая работать в пустом баке, нагрелся до +540 градусов. Где-то в огромном комплексе зданий стартовой площадки стоял самописец, фиксирующий постоянный ток нагревателя вместо циклов "вкл-выкл", но никто не посмотрел на его ленту до аварии. Раскалившийся до +540 градусов нагреватель расплавил тефлоновую изоляцию, и провода превратились в детонатор. Нештатный нагрев невозможно было зафиксировать непосредственно - бак был хорошо теплоизолирован, поэтому пожар в сервисном модуле не мог возникнуть, а нештатная температура продержалась до предстартовой заправки, когда новый жидкий кислород охладил внутренности бака. Действующие лица Экипаж "Аполлона-13" Слева направо: Ловелл, Суайгерт, Хейз. Фотографировались второпях из-за замены в экипаже. Джим Ловелл - командир, ветеран космической программы, совершил два полёта на "Джемини" и облёт Луны на "Аполлоне-8". Джон Суайгерт - пилот командного модуля. Первый полёт в космос, был в дублирующем экипаже, переведен в основной экипаж за несколько дней до полёта из-за того, что астронавт основного экипажа - Кен Маттингли контактировал с астронавтом Чарльзом Дьюком, заболевшим краснухой, и не имел иммунитета к краснухе. Первый холостяк среди астронавтов. Фред Хейз - пилот лунного модуля. Первый полёт в космос. ЦУП Хьюстона Джин Кранц - руководитель "белой команды", главной полётной смены (всего было четыре смены), и ведущий руководитель полётов. "Белая команда". Миссия неизвестна. Авария 55 часов 54 минуты полёта. Очередное включение системы перемешивания баков (она включалась регулярно, чаще, чем раз в сутки) вызвало короткое замыкание в баке номер два. Тефлоновая изоляция загорелась: Горение тефлона в кислороде, фотография натурного эксперимента по воспроизведению аварии. Горение тефлона в кислороде вызвало резкий нагрев бака и повышение давления, превышающее пределы прочности бака. Сорвало верхнюю крышку бака: Срыв крышки, фотография натурного эксперимента по воспроизведению аварии. Резкое повышение давления сорвало лист обшивки секции сервисного модуля: Срыв панели, фотография натурного эксперимента по воспроизведению аварии. Кроме этого, встряска от срыва крышки бака вызвала нештатное закрытие клапанов топливных элементов 1 и 3, приведя к их отключению через три минуты, и привела к нарушению герметичности трубопроводов бака кислорода номер один. Спустя 130 минут давление в кислородном баке номер один упало до нуля - командный модуль лишился воды и энергии. От Земли он находился на расстоянии 320 000 километров. Фотография с наземного телескопа. "Хьюстон, у нас тут была проблема" Схема полёта. Да, фраза-мем звучала в оригинале именно так: "Houston, we've had a problem here". У астронавтов и ЦУПа, конечно же, не было полного знания ситуации, рассказанной в предыдущем абзаце, поэтому первые минуты люди пытались разобраться в том, что случилось. В любом космическом происшествии прежде всего необходимо установить, это реальная проблема или отказ датчиков/телеметрии. Сначала экипаж перезагружал компьютер, докладывал показания индикаторов, подключал топливные элементы к разным шинам питания, чтобы разобраться, что происходит. Но уже спустя пятнадцать минут Джим Ловелл сообщил, что наблюдает утечку какого-то газа из сервисного модуля - проблема явно была очень серьезной, и она далеко не кончилась. В это время в ЦУПе прозвучала ещё одна крылатая фраза - "Парни, давайте решать проблему. Давайте не будем ухудшать ситуацию догадками. " Первоначальной задачей стала попытка спасения оставшегося кислорода в баке номер один. Несмотря на все попытки, место утечки не удалось изолировать, давление продолжало падать. Единственной возможностью стало включение лунного модуля, который становился спасательной шлюпкой. Работу приходилось проводить очень быстро, одновременно выключая командный модуль и включая лунный. Включение лунного модуля по инструкции занимало примерно три часа. Скорость утечки увеличивалась, и, когда стало понятно, что топливный элемент проработает меньше пятнадцати минут, пришлось менять процедуру включения на ходу. Отдельную проблему представляла навигация. Необходимо было переписать данные гиростабилизированной платформы командного модуля, провести пересчет (углы стыковки командного и лунного модуля были не строго 180 градусов) и ввести полученные данные в гиростабилизированную платформу лунного модуля. Сложная процедура была успешно произведена. Командный модуль отключился, лунный модуль взял на себя управление. Трудный выбор и первая коррекция траектории Следующей задачей стал выбор режима возвращения. Все "Аполлоны" летали по такой траектории (т. траектории свободного возвращения), которая позволяла облёт Луны и нормальную посадку на Землю. Из-за этого все высадки "Аполлонов" были недалеко от лунного экватора. В то же время, существовали режимы аварийного возвращения, когда достаточно длительный импульс двигателями возвращал корабль на Землю без облёта Луны: После достаточно напряженного совещания (там прозвучала ещё одна крылатая фраза - "Провал - это недопустимый вариант"), было принято решение остаться на траектории свободного возвращения. Аргументы: Вариант с отстрелом лунного модуля для уменьшения массы, которую было бы необходимо тормозить, стал невозможен. Вариант с использованием двигателей лунного модуля, пока хватит горючего, не давал заметного выигрыша по времени. А сброс сервисного модуля мог нарушить тепловой режим теплозащитного экрана на дне командного модуля. Повреждение теплозащитного экрана делало посадку невозможной. Расходных материалов (воды, электричества) по расчетам хватало на свободное возвращение. Главный двигатель сервисного модуля, возможно, был поврежден и его использование было большим риском. Корабль находился уже близко к Луне и маневры аварийного возвращения становились всё менее выгодными Однако, "Аполлон-13" уже сошёл с траектории свободного возврата. Небольшое отклонение было необходимо для посадки в выбранном районе. Поэтому пришлось произвести коррекцию посадочным двигателем лунного модуля, включив его на 30 секунд. Отдельная проблема состояла в навигации. Куски теплоизоляции, вырванные при разрушении кислородного бака, в изобилии разлетелись вокруг корабля, став ложными звездами. Поэтому пришлось использовать Солнце для проверки точности ориентации. К счастью, данные были перенесены верно, а гиростабилизированная платформа работала исправно, навигация сохранилась точной, и коррекция прошла успешно. Маневр PC+2 Траектория свободного возвращения также требовала небольшого маневра. Он проводился спустя два часа после периселения (перицентра орбиты вокруг Луны), поэтому назывался просто "ПериСелений +2" (PC+2). Благодаря ему точка посадки сместилась из Индийского в Тихий океан, где штатно находились основные корабли обеспечения посадки, а время посадки сдвинулось вперед на 10 часов. Посадочный двигатель лунного модуля, рассчитанный на одно включение перед посадкой, включили уже во второй раз, и он проработал 4 минуты 24 секунды. Строгая экономия Лунный модуль работал от батарей, а не топливных элементов. Поэтому, с одной стороны, кислорода было в достатке, потому что он использовался для наполнения лунного модуля после выхода на поверхность Луны. С другой стороны, электричество и вода были в жестоком дефиците. Лунный модуль был рассчитан на работу двух людей в течение полутора суток, но теперь он должен был обеспечивать трёх человек в течение четырех суток. Поэтому после выхода корабля из-за диска Луны были приняты все возможные меры для экономии электричества и воды. Вода потреблялась людьми и расходовалась на охлаждение техники. Поэтому в лунном модуле было выключено всё, что можно, а людям пришлось терпеть жажду. При подготовке ко сну в командном модуле по привычке задернули шторки на окнах, он быстро остыл и так и не прогрелся до самой посадки. В лунном модуле ситуация была чуть лучше, но и там было холодно настолько, что вода оседала росой на стенах и панелях. Засунуть квадратный штырь в круглое отверстие В английском языке есть идиома - "квадратный штырь в круглом отверстии" - "square peg in a round hole". Она обозначает человека не на своём месте. А в полёте "Аполлона-13" идиома стала реальностью. Несмотря на обилие кислорода у экипажа назревала проблема с дыханием. Дело в том, что выдыхаемый углекислый газ надо чем-то поглощать. Больше 15% углекислоты во вдыхаемом воздухе приводят к нарушениям зрения, затем сознания, и, в итоге, смерти. В лунном модуле были круглые канистры гидроксида лития, которые поглощали углекислоту. Но их не хватало. В командном модуле было достаточно канистр гидроксида лития, но они были квадратными: Фото из фильма "Аполлон-13", но смысл передан очень верно. Поэтому возникла задача быстро создать способ засунуть квадратный штырь в круглое отверстие. Специальная группа, взяв такие же материалы, как и те, которые были на "Аполлоне-13", достаточно быстро собрала адаптер и написала инструкцию по сборке. Идея была достаточно простая - канистра помещалась в пакет, в который подавался воздух из насоса воздушной системы. Пакет взяли из упаковки полётных костюмов, шланг - от скафандров, скрепили это изолентой, поставили согнутую крышку полётного плана в качестве распорки для равномерного распределения воздуха, а штатное отверстие в канистре закрыли носком и залепили той же изолентой. Сборка адаптера и работающее устройство. Веет чем-то неуловимо родным... Инструкцию передали на "Аполлон-13", и в космосе собрали такой же адаптер. Проблема углекислоты была решена. Критически важная процедура Параллельно всем этим делам шла крайне напряженная работа по созданию процедуры запуска командного модуля. Без включения командного модуля посадка была невозможна. А включение осложнялось тем, что его батареи были уже частично разряжены, а сама процедура включения полностью выключенного командного модуля не только не была разработана заранее, о ней не задумывались и в симуляторе не проверяли. Джон Аарон, тот самый "ракетчик со стальными глазами", спасший "Аполлон-12", возглавил группу создания этой процедуры. В условиях ограниченного времени (командный модуль неумолимо летел к Земле) они придумали развернуть шину питания, которая была разработана для аварийного энергоснабжения лунного модуля. Буквально несколько ампер, которых не хватало для запуска систем командного модуля, были получены от лунного модуля, и процедура была готова вовремя. Взрыв батареи На 97 часу полётного времени произошёл взрыв в одной из аккумуляторных батарей лунного модуля. Нормально выделяющийся при работе батарей водород и кислород скопились в отсеке одной из батарей и случайная искра привела к взрыву. К счастью, особых проблем этот взрыв не принёс, три батареи работали также, у четвертой немного снизился заряд. Проблема из ниоткуда Все время возвращения от Луны у корабля накапливалась проблема, причину которой никто не мог установить. Для нормальной посадки корабль должен находиться в достаточно узком диапазоне углов входа в атмосферу. Слишком маленький угол - и корабль отскочит от атмосферы как плоский камень от воды, слишком большой угол, и корабль сгорит из-за слишком сильного нагрева при торможении. И неизвестная сила во время полёта приводила к тому, что угол входа медленно, но неуклонно уменьшался. Вроде бы все силы, действующие на корабль, были учтены. Даже сброс мочи за борт запретили для того, чтобы реактивная сила не испортила траекторию, но всё тщетно - угол вышел за допустимые границы. Была нужна ещё одна коррекция. Для экономии электричества её провели вручную, не включая компьютер. Посадочный двигатель лунного модуля включился на 14 секунд на 10% тяги, уже в третий раз. Время отмеряли также вручную по наручным часам. Коррекция прошла удовлетворительно, угол вхождения в атмосферу оказался в приемлемых рамках, но позднее потребуется ещё одна коррекция. Уже после полёта было установлено, что реактивную силу создавала испаряющаяся из системы охлаждения лунного модуля вода. До этого лунный модуль никогда не находился в свободном полёте настолько долго, чтобы эта небольшая сила стала заметной. Ещё одна коррекция На 108 часу полёта произошёл разрыв предохранительной мембраны бака наддува. Гелий, рассчитанный для однократной работы перед посадкой на Луну, был разогрет ещё перед первой коррекцией после аварии. Давление в баке постоянно росло, и был неизбежен прорыв предохранительной мембраны. Потеря газа наддува означала, что посадочный двигатель лунного модуля уже не мог быть запущен. Но была нужна ещё одна коррекция. Пришлось использовать двигатели ориентации лунного модуля. К счастью, импульс был нужен маленький, всего 22 секунды гораздо менее мощных двигателей ориентации, и коррекция на 137 часу полёта прошла успешно. Посадка Перед посадкой нужно было выполнить множество операций. Во-первых, надо было перенести в командный модуль балласт - ненужные вещи, которые бы заменили 45 килограммов лунных камней. Таким балластом стали камеры, прочая мелочевка, и табличка, которую планировалось оставить на Луне - её Ловелл решил взять в качестве сувенира. Во-вторых, надо было включить командный модуль, а, учитывая несколько дней простоя и обилие влаги на стенах, это было волнующим моментом. К счастью, процедура была разработана верно, и модуль на короткое время жизни батарей вернулся в строй. Затем был отстыкован сервисный модуль. Он удалялся, медленно вращаясь, а астронавты с удивлением смотрели на то, какие большие повреждения были нанесены аварией - целая панель была сорвана: В-третьих, надо было отстыковать лунный модуль. Астронавты с грустью провожали модуль, который не доставил их на Луну, но спас жизнь. И в-четвертых, надо было проверить правильность ориентации командного модуля. Поскольку финальная часть полёта проходила в тени Земли, было замерено время покрытия Землей Луны. Время совпало с расчетами ЦУПа, ориентация была верной, а дальше работали компьютеры. Охлаждение лунного модуля снова успело уменьшить угол вхождения в атмосферу, поэтому корабль дольше обычного проходил без связи плотные слои атмосферы, что наверняка заставило людей поволноваться. И уже после восстановления связи осталась последняя интрига - сработают ли парашюты. К счастью, они сработали, и в прямом эфире вся планета могла порадоваться за успешное возвращение астронавтов домой. Уроки "Аполлон-13" очень наглядно показал, к каким большим проблемам могут привести небольшие изменения спецификации, небольшие проблемы документации и небольшие недоработки в тестировании. Второй урок, который мы можем извлечь из этой истории - это то, что квалифицированная, сработавшаяся, мотивированная команда, с квалифицированным лидером сделает всё возможное, и даже чуть-чуть больше для успеха проекта, преодолевая самые разные проблемы. А вот фраза "Провал - это недопустимый вариант" сейчас иногда опасно неверно используется как своя противоположность. "Аполлон-13" успешно вернулся только потому, что огромные ресурсы были потрачены на отработку сценариев различных аварий, резервирование важных систем, и прочие меры по обеспечению безопасности. Сказать "Провал недопустим" можно только тогда, когда проблема уже есть, для воодушевления команды. Пытаться успокоить себя словами "провала не будет", игнорируя управление рисками и прочие меры обеспечения безопасности - это преступная небрежность. И последний урок, не из сферы управления проектами, а общефилософский. "Аполлон-13" не высадился на Луну, и, вроде бы, это поражение. Но то, какое количество трудностей было преодолено, какой профессионализм был показан людьми, и какое качество показала техника - это настоящий триумф миссии. Эпилог и примечания Это - пост из цикла "уроки космических происшествий". Первый пост этого цикла для интересующихся. Я прекрасно понимаю, что в этом посте очень много про технику, очень мало про людей, и многое осталось за кадром. Скомпенсируйте этот дисбаланс, посмотрев фильм "Аполлон-13", его стоит посмотреть, даже если вы не особо увлекаетесь космонавтикой. Источники информации: Википедия и указанные в её статьях источники. Lovell Jim and Kluger Jeffrey, «Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13». Есть перевод Хартикова, но он очень неровный, часто трудные места переданы верно, и тут же какой-нибудь ляп перевода. Если нет других переводов, рекомендуется к прочтению. Есть аудиокнига на английском. «Moon Machines», Science Channel, сериал, 2008, эпизод "Лунный модуль". «When We Left Earth», Discovery Channel, сериал, 2008, четвертая серия. «From the Earth to the Moon», HBO, сериал, 1998. JSC Digital Image collection - фотоматериалы. Apollo Expeditions To The Moon. "«Неудачу из списка возможностей ИСКЛЮЧИТЬ! » " - НК, 2006. Для навигации: серия постов по тегу "Уроки космических происшествий".

Apollo 13 Watch freelance. In five years time, well hopefully see humans return to the Moon at long last. You've exceeded the maximum tag limit (64 friends max) in this photo. At the moment you can't tag a person in a photo. Please, retry later. This person does not have the access to this photo In order to tag a person, hover over his photo and press left mouse button Left-click on a photo to tag people in it. Last time I checked when I read about the Mandela effect this exact same YouTube clip said. Houston we've had a problem. And I thought to myself huh weird, I always thought it was Houston we have a problem, the Mandela effect is real! Now I see the same clip again and it says Houston we have a problem. I am not sure whats going on. Maybe I should start a Mandela effect list and write it down on paper so I can see if I'm losing my mind or not. This is the correct line Houston we have a problem. WTF.

When people say the moon landings where a hoax it not only sounds crazy but it is an insult to all the people who worked so hard and even risked their lives to accomplish that feat. Still get nervous when I hear the request to stir the tanks... Won 2 Oscars. Another 26 wins & 58 nominations. See more awards  » Learn more More Like This Comedy | Drama Fantasy 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7. 3 / 10 X After wishing to be made big, a teenage boy wakes the next morning to find himself mysteriously in the body of an adult. Director: Penny Marshall Stars: Tom Hanks, Elizabeth Perkins, Robert Loggia Adventure Romance 7. 8 / 10 A FedEx executive undergoes a physical and emotional transformation after crash landing on a deserted island. Robert Zemeckis Helen Hunt, Paul Sanchez Action Mystery Thriller 6. 6 / 10 A murder inside the Louvre, and clues in Da Vinci paintings, lead to the discovery of a religious mystery protected by a secret society for two thousand years, which could shake the foundations of Christianity. Ron Howard Audrey Tautou, Jean Reno 7. 7 / 10 When a man with HIV is fired by his law firm because of his condition, he hires a homophobic small time lawyer as the only willing advocate for a wrongful dismissal suit. Jonathan Demme Denzel Washington, Roberta Maxwell Biography Crime The true story of Captain Richard Phillips and the 2009 hijacking by Somali pirates of the U. S. -flagged MV Maersk Alabama, the first American cargo ship to be hijacked in two hundred years. Paul Greengrass Barkhad Abdi, Barkhad Abdirahman An Eastern European tourist unexpectedly finds himself stranded in JFK airport, and must take up temporary residence there. Steven Spielberg Catherine Zeta-Jones, Chi McBride 6. 7 / 10 Harvard symbologist Robert Langdon works with a nuclear physicist to solve a murder and prevent a terrorist act against the Vatican during one of the significant events within the church. Ewan McGregor, Ayelet Zurer 7. 4 / 10 The story of Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger (Tom Hanks), an American pilot who became a hero after landing his damaged plane on the Hudson River in order to save the flight's passengers and crew. Clint Eastwood Aaron Eckhart, Laura Linney 6. 8 / 10 A recently widowed man's son calls a radio talk-show in an attempt to find his father a partner. Nora Ephron Meg Ryan, Ross Malinger Two business rivals who despise each other in real life unwittingly fall in love over the Internet. Greg Kinnear 6. 2 / 10 A detective must adopt a rambunctious dog in order to help him find a killer. Roger Spottiswoode Mare Winningham, Craig T. Nelson History 7. 6 / 10 During the Cold War, an American lawyer is recruited to defend an arrested Soviet spy in court, and then help the CIA facilitate an exchange of the spy for the Soviet captured American U2 spy plane pilot, Francis Gary Powers. Mark Rylance, Alan Alda Edit Storyline Based on the true story of the ill-fated 13th Apollo mission bound for the moon. Astronauts Lovell, Haise and Swigert were scheduled to fly Apollo 14, but are moved up to 13. It's 1970, and The US has already achieved their lunar landing goal, so there's little interest in this "routine" flight.. until that is, things go very wrong, and prospects of a safe return fade. Written by Rob Hartill Plot Summary Plot Synopsis Taglines: Houston, we have a problem. See more  » Details Release Date: 30 June 1995 (USA) Also Known As: Apollo 13: The IMAX Experience Box Office Budget: $52, 000, 000 (estimated) Opening Weekend USA: $25, 353, 380, 2 July 1995 Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $355, 237, 933 See more on IMDbPro  » Company Credits Technical Specs Runtime: 140 min 106 min (IMAX Version) See full technical specs  » Did You Know? Goofs When CapCom Andy says "Roger Odyssey, we copy your venting. " the shot ends with him sitting down. Immediately following this, there is a closer shot of him sitting down again. See more » Quotes Jim Lovell: Houston, uh, we... we sure could use the re-entry procedure up here. When can we expect that? William 'Bill' Pogue, CAPCOM: Uh, that's coming real soon, Aquarius. Uh, Houston, we... we... we just can't just throw this together at the last minute. So here's what you're gonna do. You're gonna get the procedure up to us, whatever it is, and we're gonna go over it step by step so that there's no foul-ups. I don't have to tell you we're all a little tired up here. The world's getting awfully big in the window. See more » Alternate Versions A digitally remastered IMAX-format version was released in September 2002. It is about 20 minutes shorter in running time than the original theatrical version. Some of the missing scenes are the dinner that the astronauts have aboard the ship that results in Fred Haise being sick into a plastic bag, and Marilyn Lovell telling the off the press. See more » Connections Referenced in Armageddon  (1998) Soundtracks Blue Moon Written by Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart Performed by The Mavericks Courtesy of MCA Records, Inc See more » Frequently Asked Questions See more ».

Apollo 13 Watch freedom. Apollo 13 Watch free download. Apollo 13 Watch free software. Finishes the da vinci code and gets super bummed thinking there isn't a second book - clicks on this - spontaneously combusts. Watch movie apollo 13 full free. Y'know, it never ceases to amaze me how well films age. Whether it's a flashy blockbuster or a low budget drama, ageing is a curse that thousands of films succumb to. Apollo 13 though, still feels fresh when watching it today. Not because it's the depiction of a true event or the talented cast on screen (but that does help. it's the direction. This was made to showcase the technical prowess and finesse that Ron Howard has in making, what I call, a Hollywood movie. James Horner for musical score, Tom Hanks as lead has all the ingredients for a 90's classic that Hollywood love to serve up. It works, so no complaints here. Let's talk about Ron Howard, he was superb directing this. His style, ever so consistent, yet always changing. Still shots, tracking shots, POV name it, he's probably included it. Tom Hanks was charming as always, Kevin Bacon's smile just steals every scene and Bill Paxton's nervous outbursts were relatable. Bringing in Ed Harris as the flight director was a smart move, he oozes confidence and brings in the acting experience to keep us hooked. It's a bittersweet true story, our astronauts venture towards the moon where an unforeseen event occurs that prevents them from landing on the surface. A landmark event, and yet they couldn't achieve it. I honestly had sympathy for our characters, seeing their dreams being crushed within hours. I also appreciated the friction between Jack and the crew, being a newcomer is always difficult and I thought that was presented well. The effects for the most part hold up decently, the rocket launch so well. The background looked like Google Earth or Flight Simulator, could've been handled better even in 1995. It is a safe and familiar structure with not many thrills in store, a disadvantage for any well documented true event with a happy ending. In saying that, I was captivated and enthralled by the science and entranced by the performances. Ron Howard did a damn good job who deserves more recognition.

I cant believe this is from 1968. Everything looks so good even by todays standards. The accuracy of the predictions made too, face time, space travel, AI, hell even the disk drives for hal. I just learned to breath space😂😂😂. Bill Paxton: GAME OVER, MAN! GAME OVER! Tom Hanks: Houston, we've got a typecast! Houston: Copy that! Houston: You're gonna need some duct tape to immobilise him! OK. If you put the tape across his mouth, you won't need to bother to make that CO2-scrubbing thing Tom Hanks: GODDAMNIT.

13 апреля 1970 года экипаж пилотируемого космического корабля «Аполлон-13», находясь на расстоянии в сотни тысяч километров от Земли, почувствовал мощный взрыв. Так началась одна из главных катастроф в истории покорения космоса человеком. Disgusting Men подробно рассказывает об удивительной истории мужества команды «Аполлона-13». «Хьюстон, у нас проблема» Джеймс Ловелл, 13 апреля 1970 года Только что на борту космического корабля «Аполлон-13» произошёл взрыв. На третьи сутки полёта, когда трое астронавтов находились на расстоянии 330 000 километров от Земли, в служебном модуле взорвался кислородный бак и вывел из строя 2 из 3 батарей топливных элементов, тем самым лишив корабль возможности пользоваться главным двигателем. Джеймс Ловелл, Фред Хейз и Джон Свайгерт попали в угрожающую ситуацию на самом большом расстоянии от возможной помощи, которое мы только можем себе представить. Высадка на Луну отменяется, начинается операция по спасению. Миссия «Аполлон» «Аполлон» — одна из самых масштабных и известных программ НАСА. В 1961 году, вскоре после полёта Юрия Гагарина, президент США Джон Кеннеди поставил задачу высадить человека на Луну – и этим человеком во чтобы то ни стало должен был стать американец. Эта задача была настолько амбициозной, что каждый её этап порождал выдающиеся достижения одно за другим, расширяя границы возможностей человечества. Для начала нужно было создать ракету, которая смогла бы вывести на орбиту всё необходимое для полёта к Луне и обратно. Знаменитый немецкий конструктор Вернер фон Браун, один из основоположников ракетостроения, взялся за решение этой проблемы. Ему первому удалось создать баллистическую ракету «Фау-2», которая, перелетая через Ла-Манш, бомбардировала английские города во время Второй Мировой войны. Теперь же его детище должно было послужить куда более благородной цели – забросить человека на спутник Земли. Результатом его работы стало создание «Сатурна V». Эта ракета и по сей день остаётся самой тяжёлой, самой грузоподъемной, самой большой и самой мощной из созданных человеком. 3-х местные «Аполлоны», названные в честь древнегреческого божества, специально создавались для отправки астронавтов к Луне. Эта серия стала ответом на успехи советской космической программы и была призвана обеспечить фору Соединённым Штатам Америки в технологической гонке с Советами. С 1968 года за семь лет было произведено 15 успешных стартов. 20 июля 1969 года командир «Аполлона-11» Нил Армстронг впервые в истории ступил на поверхность Луны: «Это один маленький шаг для человека, но гигантский скачок для всего человечества». После него на Луне побывали ещё 5 «Аполлонов» и 11 человек. На сегодняшний день шесть пилотируемых посадок на Луну в рамках программы «Аполлон» — это единственные случаи высадки человека на астрономическое тело вне Земли. Корабль Космический корабль «Аполлон-13» состоял из трёх основных модулей: командного (позывной «Одиссей»), служебного и лунного модуля (позывной «Аквариус»). Масса корабля на старте составляла около 50 тонн, высота около 15 метров, а диаметр – около 4 метров, объём жилых отсеков почти 13 м³. Объём пищи, воды и регенерационных блоков для восстановления кислорода обеспечивал трём астронавтам  не более 14-ти суток автономного полёта. Почти всё время полёта астронавты размещались в командном отсеке, где находилось всё необходимое оборудование для управления кораблём и ведения наблюдений. Именно этот командный отсек в конечном счёте возвращается на землю и приземляется на парашютах вместе со всем экипажем. Лунный модуль служил лишь для маневров в непосредственной близости от лунной поверхности, посадки на неё и последующего взлёта. Он был рассчитан на пребывание в нём двух астронавтов в течение 75 часов. Взлёт «Сатурна V» с «Аполлоном 13» на борту Полёт «Аполлон-13» стартовал 11 апреля 1970 года с острова Меррит во Флориде, за пуском наблюдало очень большое скопление людей – около 100 000 человек. Это было ещё то время, когда покорители космоса действительно были всенародными героями и их имена знал любой мальчишка, а каждый запуск становился грандиозным событием и центральной темой новостей и разговоров. Джеймс Ловелл Командиром экипажа был назначен опытный астронавт Джеймс Ловелл, совершивший к этому времени уже три полёта, включая полёт к Луне на «Аполлоне-8». Пилотом командного модуля был Джон Свайгерт, в последний момент заменивший Томаса Маттингли, из-за угрозы заболевания последнего краснухой, к которой он не имел иммунитета. Пилотом лунного модуля был Фред Хейз. Экипаж Ловелла был резервным, но из-за заболевания одного из членов основного экипажа, он весь подлежал замене. Так обычная краснуха определила состав экипажа несчастливого тринадцатого «Аполлона». Фред Хейз Все системы были проверены и перепроверены десятки раз, на земле отработаны тысячи нештатных ситуаций. Астронавты были хорошо подготовлены и имели отличную поддержку команды инженеров и учёных на Земле. Их полёт должен был обеспечить третью высадку на Луне, закрепив успех НАСА. Джек Свайгерт Выход на орбиту Земли прошёл в штатном режиме с минимальными отклонениями по скорости и высоте. Через два с половиной часа полёта включилась третья ступень «Сатурна V» и разогнала «Аполлон» до второй космической скорости на траектории к Луне. Астронавты сняли скафандры, выдохнули, поудобнее устроились в креслах и приготовились к рутинной работе. После окончания разгона, основной блок (командный и сервисный модули) отделился от третьей ступени, и Джек Свайгерт, развернув корабль на 180-градусов, пристыковался к лунному модулю и извлёк его из транспортного контейнера ракеты. С этого момента в полностью собранном виде «Аполлон-13» вошёл в основную фазу полёта. Через 5 суток им предстояла сложная посадка на Луне, увлекательная работа на поверхности, а затем длительный путь домой. Катастрофа На третьи сутки полёта после 47 часов нормальной работы начались первые признаки неполадок. Датчики показывали повышенный уровень жидкого кислорода в баке №2 служебного модуля, который был окислителем топлива для двигателей. Такие показания были ожидаемы, так как в условиях невесомости содержимое баков расслаивается и датчики начинают выдавать неправильные данные. Для решения этой проблемы конструкторы корабля предусмотрели микро-турбины в каждом баке, с помощью которых можно перемешивать газовую и жидкую фазу газа и таким образом добиваться правильных показаний. В центре управления полётом сразу после аварии Когда корабль находился на расстоянии 330 000 километров от Земли, а экипаж в прямом эфире передавал репортаж для вечерней телепрограммы новостей, рассказывая о быте на корабле и своей работе, данные датчиков продолжали расти – давление в баке повышалось. Сразу же после окончания репортажа из Хьюстона поступила команда начать перемешивание в баках. Свайгерт перещёлкнул тумблеры и процедура началась. Через шестнадцать секунд в 55:55:09 полётного времени «Аполлон-13» содрогнулся от мощного взрыва. Командир экипажа Джеймс Ловелл сообщает центру управления полётом в Хьюстоне о чрезвычайной ситуации, начиная свой доклад ставшими знаменитыми словами: «Хьюстон, у нас проблема». Он рассказывает о падении напряжения на панелях управления и о том, что после взрыва из двигательного отсека истекает какой-то газ и эта реактивная струя меняет ориентацию корабля. Через три минуты полностью падает напряжение на электромагистрали В, снабжающей системы и оборудование командного модуля. Центр управления полетом дал указание экипажу свести расход электроэнергии к минимуму, экипаж начал отключать питание всех второстепенных приборов, но это не помогло – очень скоро стало падать напряжение и в электромагистрали А, и система электроснабжения командного модуля полностью вышла из строя. Давление кислорода в баке №2 упало до нуля, а в повреждённом баке №1 достигло 50% значений и продолжало падать. Это означало, что система жизнеобеспечения командного отсека сможет обеспечить существование экипажа только в течение 15 мин – именно на столько хватало энергии аварийных аккумуляторов.  Операторы из Хьюстона  сразу же дали дистанционную команду на отключение двух из трёх топливных элементов, надеясь остановить утечку из двух баллонов с кислородом. Это автоматически означало отказ от планов высадки на Луну, так как  для маневров вокруг Луны служебный модуль должен был иметь два рабочих топливных элемента. Требовалось принимать быстрые и решительные меры по спасению экипажа – Ловелл и Хейз перешли в лунный модуль «Аквариус» и инициировали системы жизнеобеспечения в нём, Свайгерт в этот момент записывал все параметры полёта в главном компьютере корабля и отключал все системы командного модуля. Через три часа НАСА приняло окончательное решение об отказе от посадки на Луну и аварийном возвращении «Аполлона-13» на Землю. Об этом сообщили экипажу, их ждала тяжёлая дорога домой. Десятки лучших специалистов НАСА начали экстренную выработку решений для обратного полёта, перебирая все возможные варианты. К их чести нужно сказать, что на эту работу было потрачено очень мало времени: то, что обычно занимает недели сложных расчётов, в этот раз сделали меньше чем за сутки. Проблемы на борту Основной проблемой была невозможность использования основного жидкостно-реактивного двигателя служебного модуля, который и предназначался для маневров на пути к Луне и обратно. Из-за взрыва одного из кислородных баков его использование могло вызвать ещё б о льшие разрушения, и такого риска предпочли избежать, намереваясь использовать двигатель лунного модуля для всех маневров. Однако конструкция двигателя – а что более важно, топливных баков – для него была предназначена для одноразового и кратковременного использования вблизи лунной поверхности. Подача топлива осуществлялась с помощью сжатого гелия, который давил на мягкую мембрану внутри бака, вытесняющую само топливо. Со временем давление в баках возрастало настолько, что гелий прорывал специально рассчитанную диафрагму и улетучивался в вакуум, после чего использование двигателя становилось невозможным. Другой проблемой стали осложнения с навигацией и ориентированием корабля. В обычных условиях требуется периодическая сверка систем навигации из-за накапливающейся ошибки гироскопов: для этого астронавты наводятся на какую-либо подходящую навигационную звезду, снимают показания и вводят поправки в компьютер. При взрыве корабль раскрутился и потерял ориентацию, но что самое неприятное – его окружила целая туча мелких обломков, частиц обшивки, краски и газа. Всё это сверкало и светилось, переотражая солнечный свет, и делало невозможным наведение по звёздам. Третьей и, пожалуй, самой важной проблемой стало жизнеобеспечение членов экипажа. Дело в том, что лунный модуль был рассчитан на пребывание в нём двух человек на протяжении максимум 75 часов, теперь же к ним присоединился третий астронавт, а время полёта заведомо было больше запланированного. Если с кислородом и питанием дела были в порядке, то с количеством пресной воды (теперь её требовалось больше для охлаждения всех систем) и с поглощением выдыхаемого углекислого газа дела обстояли худо. Более того, вскоре выяснилось, что из-за жёсткой экономии электроэнергии (этот ресурс был самым важным для благополучного возвращения домой), пришлось отключить обогрев кабины и температура стала падать катастрофически быстро, стремительно приближаясь к нулевой отметке. В итоге в течение всего полёта в кабине держалась температура около 11°C, а члены экипажа сильно мёрзли из-за отсутствия тёплой одежды и невозможности подвигаться в тесной кабине «Аквариуса», чтобы согреться. Возвращение Специалисты НАСА разработали несколько вариантов возвращения корабля на Землю, но в условиях скромного запаса топлива и ограниченных ресурсов жизнеобеспечения «Аквариуса» необходимо было найти компромиссный вариант, который обеспечил бы  более быстрое возвращение живых астронавтов в атмосферу Земли. Для этого требовалось выполнить коррекцию траектории, облететь вокруг Луны и ускориться на пути к Земле. Первая коррекция была проведена на утро следующего дня после аварии. Теперь пошёл и обратный отсчёт времени до выхода из строя двигателя лунного модуля – прорыв мембраны в его баках прогнозировался между 105-ым и 110-ым часом полётного времени «Аполлона». До этого события оставалось примерно 40 часов. Тем не менее, коррекция прошла удачно, корабль лёг на нужный курс и начал облетать Луну. Обратная сторона Луны с борта «Аполлона 13» Когда «Аполлон-13» проносился над обратной стороной Луны, Хейз и Свайгерт бросились с фотоаппаратами к иллюминаторам, они жадно снимали проносящиеся под ними кратеры и залитые светом пустынные равнины лунных морей. Ловелл уже видел это во время прошлого полёта и не испытывал такого энтузиазма. Снова дразнящая Луна ускользала от него, не позволяя искупать ботинки в своей пыли. Такой возможности ему не представится больше никогда. На пути к Земле потребовалось включить двигатели во второй раз, чтобы увеличить скорость корабля и сократить время пребывания экипажа в сложных условиях с истекающим ресурсом жизнеобеспечения. Эта коррекция также была проведена успешно, и астронавты устремились к спасительному голубому шарику, который переливался яркими, полными жизни красками посреди зловещей космической темноты. В кабине лунного модуля царила рабочая атмосфера: в клубах выдыхаемого пара, среди капель конденсата, сгорбившись в тесном пространстве, трое астронавтов усердно работали, проверяя и перепроверяя показания приборов, следуя инструкциям с Земли и настраивая оборудование. Настроение экипажа было не слишком боевым из-за неудавшейся высадки на Луну, но они понимали, что от их действий и точного выполнения команд из Хьюстона зависит возвращение домой и возможность сделать ещё одну попытку достичь спутника Земли. Но не всё зависело от действий людей. В тесной непредназначенной для троих кабине «Аквариуса» рос процент углекислого газа. Системы регенерации не справлялись с его переработкой, и когда содержание газа достигло 13%, появилась реальная угроза жизни экипажа. К сожалению, использовать фильтры системы поглощения из командного модуля было невозможно – он был обесточен. На борту и в центре управления полётом в Хьюстоне лихорадочно искали решение. Спасителем стал специалист НАСА Эд Смайли – он предложил схему создания переходника для этих фильтров из подручных материалов, имевшихся на корабле. Сначала её испытали на земле, а затем передали подробные инструкции экипажу. Для переходника использовали оболочку костюма охлаждения от лунного скафандра и его шланги, картонные обложки от полетного плана, кусок полотенца Хейза и липкую ленту. Ловелл докладывал на Землю: «Выглядит это не очень симпатично, но вроде работает…» Очумелые ручки сработали на славу, и вскоре содержание губительного углекислого газа стало падать, астронавты вздохнули свободнее. Сборка самодельной системы поглощения углекислого газа на борту «Аполлона 13» Впереди предстоял самый сложный и ответственный этап возвращения: последняя коррекция траектории, переход в командный модуль, расстыковка и непосредственный вход в атмосферу Земли. Перед операцией третьей корректировки «Аполлон-13» постигла новая неудача – внезапно взорвалась одна из аккумуляторных батарей посадочной ступени лунного модуля, напряжение несколько упало, но в Хьюстоне сочли это некритичным и никаких аварийных действий не потребовалось. Экипаж успешно провёл коррекцию траектории и на 108 часу полёта произошёл разрыв мембраны в баке лунного модуля, и двигатель, выполнив все возложенные на него задачи, оказался, наконец, бесполезен. 17 апреля провели последнюю коррекцию траектории с помощью маломощных двигателей ориентации лунного модуля. Астронавты начали переносить необходимое оборудование и вещи в командный модуль, готовясь к посадке. Шёл 137 час их полёта. Служебный модуль «Аполлона 13» сразу после расстыковки После того, как Ловелл, Свайгерт и Хейз перебрались в «Одиссей», им требовалось отстыковаться от бесполезного служебного отсека. Эта сложная операция, включающая два разворота, прошла блестяще, и через иллюминаторы астронавты смогли, наконец, увидеть, что же произошло со служебным модулем. Картина вселяла ужас! Одна из панелей длинной около четырёх метров и более полутора метров в ширину, прикрывающая системы служебного отсека, оказалась вырванной взрывом, сопло двигателя было покорёжено, почти всё оборудование этой части отсека было выведено из строя. Всем стало ясно: тот факт, что они они сейчас живы – это подарок судьбы. Последней операцией стало прощание с лунным модулем «Аквариус», который служил домом трём астронавтам на протяжении последних четырёх дней. Люки между модулями были задраены, проверена герметичность соединения и атмосфера внутри командного модуля, все системы жизнеобеспечения были запитаны и работали в штатном режиме. Оставалось только подорвать пироболты соединения и помахать ручкой плавно удаляющемуся «Аквариусу», которому так и не суждено было выполнить своё главное предназначение и побывать на Луне. 17 апреля в 18 часов 07 минут 41 секунду (142:56:46 полетного времени) «Аполлон-13» благополучно приводнился в 7, 5 километрах от ожидающего судна спасательной команды. Все члены экипажа были спасены и доставлены самолётом на Гавайские острова. Ловелл, Хейз и Свайгерт, конечно не без помощи отличных ребят из наземных служб НАСА, выбрались живыми из такой переделки, в которую до них не попадал никто. Оказаться за сотни тысяч километров от Земли в ситуации с призрачными шансами на спасение и мужественно выстоять до конца в тяжелейших условиях, не сдаваясь и не падая духом – на такое способны только настоящие герои. Астронавты и наземные службы Хьюстона за проявленное мужество и исключительно высокопрофессиональную работу были удостоены «Медали свободы» — высшей награды США для гражданских. Пожалуй, стоит отметить, что эта авария, очень близко подобравшаяся к статусу космической катастрофы, сослужила троим американцам и хорошую службу. Ввиду того, что для их спасения использовалась траектория свободного облёта Луны, корабль «Аполлон-13» незапланированно установил рекорд удаления пилотируемого аппарата от Земли — 401 056 км, а его экипаж стал самым известным за всю историю полётов НАСА. Так далеко до них не летал ещё никто.

When you launch your rocket in KSP. You have the plot wrong. How they make tje film is it real video in space. "We've never lost an American in space. We're sure as hell not gonna lose one on my watch! Failure is not an option! " "Houston, we have a problem. " — Jim Lovell In 1970, the Apollo 13 mission was launched, headed for the moon. But this ill-fated flight would never reach its goal. Instead, its crew would have to handle another crisis — one which endangers not only the mission, but their very lives. But this 1995 movie is no sci-fi epic. Based on actual events, Apollo 13 depicts real history. When an explosion rocks the service module, the crew soon realizes that the oxygen tanks aboard the Command Module Odyssey are leaking, forcing Mission Control to abort the landing. The crew shut down Odyssey and power up the Lunar Module Aquarius (which normally could only support two men for a little over a day) to act as a lifeboat as they slingshot around the far side of the moon. Only ingenuity and the ability to keep their wits about them will allow them to get home safely... Based on Jim Lovell's book on his experience, Lost Moon. In an interesting example, he shot the book idea past publishers, publishers got excited and sent it to filmmakers who immediately started bidding on it, and then someone called Lovell and said Imagine Entertainment was going to make a movie based on it. He hadn't finished the book yet! Director Ron Howard, producer Brian Grazer, and star Tom Hanks went on to produce the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon. If you watch this on DVD, Blu-Ray, or the Signature Collection Laserdisc, make sure you listen to the commentary track by the real Jim and Marilyn Lovell. Apollo 13 provides examples of:     open/close all folders      Tropes # to F  13 Is Unlucky: As noted on the main article page, NASA sparingly used 13 as a mission number since the accident. For NASA, a trope could be made for "January is Unlucky. " The final flight of Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia, the Apollo 1 fire and the loss of Orbiter Challenger all occurred on January 16, 27, 28 in 2003, 1967 and 1986. (While the Columbia re-entry disaster did not occur until February 3, the problem that caused the disaster happened on launch. ) Ace Pilot: You have to be an ace pilot to be an astronaut, but Jim Lovell is talked about as one of the best even by other astronauts (who are more likely to praise their own skills than others'), having flown numerous successful missions for the Navy, Gemini, and Apollo 8. Ken Mattingly is also considered to be up at the top — when informed that he's working on the power-up procedures, Lovell is somewhat reassured. Activation Sequence: Near the end, as they approach Earth, Ken Mattingly in Houston is in the simulator going through power-up procedures, trying to get enough systems up to run the module through re-entry, while not burning through their remaining power. The one we actually see him go through, obviously, is the one that works as the systems each come back up and monitors come back to life. Later he walks Jack Swigert through the procedure on the Odyssey, which had been shut down following the explosion days before. Actually Pretty Funny: On day 6, a fit of cabin fever leads to the crew ripping off their bio-med sensors. While Charles Berry was exasperated to say the least, Gene Kranz was rather amused. Adaptational Attractiveness: Gary Sinise ◊ is a lot more handsome than Ken Mattingly ◊ was. Air Voyance: When Lovell takes off for Florida, his wife watches from the yard as his plane flies over the house. Justified by the plane being a white T-38 Talon, and also by the likelihood that Lovell would have set up his flight plan specifically to allow the pass. (NASA has maintained a fleet of T-38s, as chase planes and astronaut trainer/taxis, for a very long time, and the agency's fleet livery is white with sky blue pinstriping. NASA pilots often let their families know they were home by overflying their house, Air Traffic Control permitting. The more senior the pilot, the hotter the aircraft which might be available for personal taxi service, e. g at least one pilot at Dryden (Edwards AFB) often used an F-104 Starfighter for trips. ) Taken Up to Eleven in a later scene, where Lovell looks down at the Earth through a window in the lunar module, and his wife stares back up at him from her living room. Almost Out of Oxygen: Initially played deathly straight, as the Odyssey depends on the rapidly venting liquid oxygen for power as well as simple breathing. Inverted once Aquarius is online; due to multiple planned moonwalks (which would have required venting the entire LEM for each moonwalk, and repressurizing after each one as well), they have plenty of breathing oxygen, but they also have too much CO 2 in their air. They need to MacGyver a carbon dioxide filter in order to avoid Hypercapnia. And Mission Control Rejoiced: They go absolutely nuts after Lovell's answer of the hail from CAPCOM confirms that the astronauts survived reentry. Artistic License: The three astronauts remained surprisingly cool under pressure in real life (let's face it, you don't get to be an astronaut if you don't have Nerves of Steel), but the movie ramped up emotional tensions between them for dramatic effect. If you're the space-buff sort, you can read the flight's entire transcript and compare it to the film adaptation. To put it in perspective, the highlight of the astronauts' tension was Jim Lovell saying frappin' in frustration at one point. In short, the film heightens what both astronauts and engineers were already contemplating before several of the film's crises actually occurred (such as CO 2 scrubbing). A lot of the drama around Ken Mattingly in the film was contrived. In reality, he was actually at Mission Control when the incident unfolded. At the beginning of the film, the Lovell family are seen hosting a party for Apollo 11's landing. In reality, Jim Lovell was at Mission Control during the landing and moonwalk, as he was Neil Armstrong's backup for the flight. On the commentary track, Jim Lovell points out that when leaving Earth orbit, you don't aim for where the moon is at the time but where it will be by the time you arrive days later, but admits that showing the spacecraft heading towards the moon makes for a better-looking image in the film. The Saturn V rocket for Apollo 13 is shown being rolled out to the launchpad two days before the launch. It was actually rolled out in December 1969. In real life, Apollo 13's launch happened during the shift of Flight Director Milt Windler and the Maroon Team. The film depicts Gene Kranz and the White Team working that shift as a means of introducing Kranz and several other important Mission Control characters to the audience. Alan Shepard's ear condition was fully cured after 1969, the switch between the proposed crews of Apollo 13 and 14 was issued to give more time to Shepard (whose only previous flight dated back to Mercury MR-3 in 1961) and his inexperienced crew. As You Know: There's a fair amount of this to get NASA techno-speak across to a viewing audience. The emergency meeting where the Mission Control guys explain the meaning of terms they already know like "direct abort" and "free return trajectory" stands out. Badass Boast: Jim's mother, Blanche, is confident that he will get them home safely. Blanche: If they could get a washing machine to fly, my Jimmy could land it. Gene frickin ' Kranz: The character's famous line is a bit of Artistic License as the real Kranz did not say this, but let's all pretend that he did, m'kay? note  Gene: We never lost an American in space, we're sure as hell not gonna lose one on my watch! Failure is not an option! Then there was this reply by Kranz: Director: This could be the worst disaster NASA's ever experienced. Kranz: With All Due Respect, sir, I believe this is gonna be our finest hour. Badass Bookworm: It's NASA. This skill needs to be on the resume of each team member. The guy who comes up with the design of the jury-rigged CO 2 filter earns the title of "Steely-eyed missile man". John Aaron, the original "steely-eyed missile man" from Apollo 12. His role in the movie is an expanded pastiche of himself and quite a few other people, but he really was there and played a critical role in coming up with the reduced-power boot-up sequence for the CM. The Big Board: Two different boards are used for this purpose: There's the more traditional (trope-wise) big board at the front of mission control showing, at various times in the movie, plot-relevant status updates of the mission (i. e., status of the main engines, the current position of the astronauts, etc. ) After the explosion and Kranz calls a meeting in a side room, he uses a chalkboard to draw the Earth, moon, and the current position of the astronauts - for the audience, this is used to explain what is meant by "free-return trajectory" vs. "direct abort", as well as (later on) how far 45 hours would get the astronauts. (He first tried using an overhead projector, but, appropriately, it malfunctioned when he tried to use it. ) Big "YES! ": The entire world's reaction, in general, when, after more than 4 minutes of radio silence... Jim: Hello, Houston, this is Odyssey. It's good to see you again. The Grumman rep, after warning the LM was not built for making course-corrections, whoops it up, yelling "How 'about that LM, eh?! " Billions of Buttons: So many, in fact, that NASA sent Dave Scott, the commander of Apollo 15, as a button wrangler to make sure they did it right. Bittersweet Ending: Apollo 13 was called a "successful failure", in that they returned home safely, but did not land on the moon as originally intended, making Jim Lovell the only Apollo astronaut who flew to the moon twice without landing note. The mention in the end narration of Jack Swigert's untimely death from cancer in 1980 also makes the ending more bittersweet. Brick Joke: During the in-flight broadcast, Jack Swigert mentions that he forgot to file his taxes. (To which Sy Liebergot comments, " That's no joke, they'll jump on him! ". ) Later, he's informed that the president granted him an extension on his taxes, since he is "most decidedly out of the country. " Ken Mattingly gets bumped from the flight of Apollo 13 because of exposure to the measles. Later, as they're preparing to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, Mattingly takes CAPCOM. Lovell asks him, "Are the flowers blooming in Houston? " Mattingly replies, "Uh, that's a negative, Jim, I don't have the measles, " as he glares at Berry. The final narration states that Mattingly never got measles. The crew "mutiny" by ripping off their medical monitors. Guess what Haise can be seen throwing around later when the crew needs to adjust the weight on the ship? The confusion over VOX (basically, a toggled-on mic). Early on, right after the initial catastrophe, the crew gets frustrated about obvious things that Mission Control is telling them, and Mission Control breaks in to inform them that they're hearing every shout and swear. Later on, during another tense moment caused by stir-craziness (and possibly low-level CO 2 poisoning), Mission Control chimes in again, and the first thing Lovell yells is "Are we on VOX?!?! " remembering the last time. They weren't, and he immediately collects himself. The film answers the question that Lovell declines to respond to the lady reporter - how does one go potty in space. (That joke was done specifically because that is one of the most often asked questions of astronauts. ) There's a second, glossed-over reason for including that scene: note that it's Fred Haise that's using the pee tube; though not actually mentioned in the film, in real life, it was a urinary tract infection that made Haise ill during the voyage. (Not the measles, and not "the clap" as Fred jokingly suggested later in the film. ) There's actually a third reason as well. After they've abandoned Odyssey and are in the process of powering down Aquarius for the coast back to Earth, Houston informs the crew that they can't dump waste overboard any more, as the venting could potentially push them off course and force them to expend very limited consumables to correct for it. Naturally the astronauts are less than thrilled by the prospect of bags full of their own waste products floating around the cabin for the next 3 days. A subtle one. After the launch, Marilyn Lovell comments that she might look calm but that this doesn't end for her until she sees Jim board the aircraft carrier from the retrieval helicopter. When that happens, it cuts to Marilyn giving an adorable "there it is" reaction. Butt-Monkey: From getting crap for bumping Mattingly from the mission to a later "medical mutiny", Charles Berry can't catch a break. The Cameo: Aside from Ron Howard's relatives, he also put in movie producer Roger Corman (as the congressman who questions continuing the Apollo program) and Todd Hallowell, the film's Executive Producer, (as the guy that yells at Jim Lovell at a traffic light). Walter Cronkite does the prologue narration, and his news broadcasts for both Apollo 11 and 13 are used as plot points. The Captain: Gene Kranz at Mission Control is a model leader who commands respect. Unassuming but firm, he's cool on many levels; he's calm and collected, exactly what is required when time is at the essence, makes critical, unprecedented and right decisions on his feet and never fails to be assertive but polite. When the occasion requires it he's stingy without being smug and proudly shoots down any defeatism. His empathy solidifies him as the perfect captain. Jim Lovell obviously, the savvy, competent and balanced commander of the Apollo 13. Fittingly, he was officially Captain James Lovell, United States Navy. Also fittingly, the real Jim Lovell wore his old Navy captain's uniform for his cameo appearance in the film. Captain Obvious: When Marilyn asks Jim why his mission has to be called Apollo 13, he replies, "It comes after 12. " CAPCOM, which was just doing its job, but the astronauts were understandably tense. In another example of the attention to detail in the movie, Truth in Television. It was over 30 minutes before the astronauts realized they had their microphone set to VOX, and Jim Lovell really did say "frappin'" over the radio. CAPCOM: Aquarius, watch that middle gimbal. We don't want you tumbling off into space. Jim: Freddo, inform Houston I'm well aware of the God-damned gimbals! Fred: [calmly] Roger that, Houston. Jim Lovell: I don't need to hear the obvious, I've got the frappin' 8-ball right in front of me! INCO: Andy, we're on VOX. CAPCOM: Aquarius, Houston. We have you both on VOX. Fred: You want what, you want us to go to VOX? CAPCOM: You have a hot mic, we are reading everything you say. Fred: [giving a sheepish smirk] Sorry, Jim. The Casanova: Jack is depicted in the film as a ladies man who is introduced using sexual-spatial metaphors with a girl. He's also remarked as the first bachelor in space—initially, NASA policy only allowed married men to be astronauts for PR purposes, and Jack was one of the first bachelors in the corps. This is referenced by Fred Haise after he starts coming down with a nasty UTI during the mission. He speculates that "Swigert gave [him] the clap" by urinating in his relief tube. Caps Lock, Num Lock, Missiles Lock: Defied. Swigert makes sure to place a bit of paper with "NO" written on it on the LM jettison switch so that he wouldn't accidentally jettison the thing with them on it. The Chains of Commanding: Lovell has to choose between replacing Ken Mattingly or skipping the mission. Ken is not happy about the call, but recognizes it's a tough one and doesn't hold any grudge against Lovell. Chekhov's Gun: We see the crew using duct tape for fairly mundane jobs earlier in the mission (such as taping bags of waste to the cabin wall so they don't drift around). The fact that they have a roll of the stuff on board becomes far more important later when they need it to build a make-shift adaptor for the lithium hydroxide canisters to scrub CO 2 from the LM atmosphere. Cherubic Choir: During re-entry and splashdown scenes. Cold Equation: The lunar module was designed to support two men for two days. Now it had to support three men for four. Thankfully, there were enough resources to pull it off. Kranz: I don't care what anything was designed to do. I care about what it can do. Composite Character: Loren Dean is credited as "EECOM Arthur", but is given the role of several Houston flight controllers and engineers, most notably John Aaron, Mission Control's premier "steely-eyed missile man" who saved Apollo 12 months before when their Saturn V rocket was struck (several times) by lightning. The character is referred to as "John" a few times in dialogue, too, reinforcing that this character is indeed meant to represent him. Ken Mattingly in the film was a composite of all the people who helped in the simulators to get the crew back. Conflict Ball: One arises by way of Jack Swigert trying to bring to the crew's attention to a prediction he made of the module not having a steep enough return trajectory, before hitting his head and cursing out of frustration. The ensuing argument tips them off that they were all thinking slightly less rationally than usual, by Houston alerting them to their high carbon dioxide levels, and Haise's math error in calculating CO 2 ratios around two people's breathing, not three. Continuous Decompression: The dream sequence, apparently based on a real dream Marilyn Lovell had shortly before the launch. note  Cool Car: Jim and Ken drive striking sport cars. Truth in Television, as auto makers at the time loved to give discounted (or even free) models to the astronauts so they could market their latest cars as "the choice of the astronauts! " Corvettes like Jim's were particularly popular with the astronaut corps. Corpsing: The director told Hanks at one point during filming the TV broadcast/non-broadcast scene to do something to liven up the kid actors, as they were getting bored. He went back and started his lines about the space food again, then changed to a joke about a Free Willy sandwich, playing on the actress who portrayed Barbara Lovell (the eldest daughter) also having been in that franchise's second film. Crazy-Prepared: Averted in the movie for dramatic purposes; in reality, even the off-the-wall stuff was largely dusting off prepared contingencies and stringing them together. note  As an aversion, Lovell himself has said, "If we planned for every single possible contingency, I'd still be training for this mission. " Keep in mind that he said this in an interview thirty years later. Cyanide Pill: Lovell makes reference to the popular story around NASA regarding these in the memoir the film was based on. (They weren't real, though. ) Damn You, Muscle Memory! : When preparing for reentry, Lovell automatically takes the pilot's seat before Swigert gets to it. Swigert looks hurt, assuming that Lovell doesn't trust his skills, but says nothing. When Lovell notices he apologizes—taking the pilot's seat is a force of habit, and he moves aside to let Swigert fly them home. Danger Deadpan: Because astronauts are just awesome like that. Darkest Hour: The American space program is on the brink of one its major disasters, but it's successfully inverted. Decomposite Character: The team of engineers who figured how to make the Command Module's air filters fit the (incompatible) slots of the Lunar Module were a decomposition of a single engineer who devised the solution while driving to work. Deliberate Values Dissonance: During the shift change in Mission Control after the launch, the camera focuses on the controllers emptying overfull ashtrays. Disconcerting even to 1995 audiences, never mind those in the 21st century. Disaster Dominoes News anchormen giving running summaries on the events of the mission can make things seem like this, combined with Tempting Fate. Walter Cronkite:.. if anything else goes wrong, they'll be in real trouble. As explained in the book, the actual mission included two other course correction burns and at least one additional serious problem note, not shown in the movie. Ron Howard said he left these out for fear that the real story would be too melodramatic. Disney Death: Communications black out during re-entry, and all the audience can see is Mission Control and Lovell's family awaiting for contact to be re-established. After three minutes (the longest a blackout had been sustained before a prior crew arrived safely), still no contact. After four minutes, still no contact. Eventually, there's contact, but the movie makes sure to make every character and every audience member sweat it out. In real life, the actual blackout lasted six minutes, nearly a minute and a half longer than expected. This was due to the trajectory of the command module being slightly shallower than originally calculated, due to it being underweight because of the lack of lunar cargo they were supposed to bring back. Does This Remind You of Anything? : Done not-at-all-subtly by Jack when he explains to a woman how the ship will link up with the lunar lander. This foreshadows a later scene where he actually performs the manoeuvre in space and it causes a completely unsexual scraping noise. Dreaming of Things to Come: Marilyn Lovell has a nightmare where Jim and the crew suffer Continuous Decompression shortly after takeoff. This was not an invention of the movie for dramatic effect, she actually had that exact dream in real life. Dream Team: Gene Kranz's White Team. Drowning My Sorrows: After he gets scrubbed from the mission so soon before liftoff, Ken Mattingly drinks heavily, switching off his TV in disgust at hearing talk show host Dick Cavett talking about his replacement Jack Swigert. He gets over that after learning about the accident. The real Mattingly was at Mission Control when the accident happened. Duct Tape for Everything: Part of the solution for how they got home. It allowed the air filter for the command module to fit the (incompatible) filter opening for the lunar module, so that the astronauts would not choke on their own exhaled carbon dioxide. The duct tape was aboard the spacecraft in the first place simply as a means of stopping crap from floating around the cabin, a usage seen earlier in the movie. Reportedly, when the real life engineer who eventually came up with that contraption learned that there was indeed duct tape aboard Apollo 13, he knew it could be fixed. Epic Launch Sequence: The launch of the Saturn V rocket carrying the craft. Reportedly so realistic that Buzz Aldrin asked director Ron Howard during an advance screening how he had obtained the footage from NASA only for Howard to tell him they'd done it themselves. Eureka Moment: The scriptwriters had one when they met with one of the real life members of mission control, Jerry Bostick, and asked him if they'd ever contemplated failure during the crisis. Jerry Bostick: In preparation for the movie, the script writers, Al Reinart and Bill Broyles, came down to Clear Lake to interview me on "What are the people in Mission Control really like? " One of their questions was "Weren't there times when everybody, or at least a few people, just panicked? " My answer was "No, when bad things happened, we just calmly laid out all the options, and failure was not one of them. We never panicked, and we never gave up on finding a solution. " I immediately sensed that Bill Broyles wanted to leave and assumed that he was bored with the interview. Only months later did I learn that when they got in their car to leave, he started screaming, "That's it! That's the tag line for the whole movie, Failure is not an option. Now we just have to figure out who to have say it. " Of course, they gave it to the Kranz character, and the rest is history. Everybody Smokes: Mission Control is stuffed to the vents with smokers and ashtrays are as prominent as flashing lights—each station has an ashtray built in, as did the seats in the viewing gallery behind the Mission Control room. Punctuated during the Go/No-Go sequence where Charles Berry blows out a huge cloud of cigarette smoke. Gene Kranz stated in a documentary that the "smell" of Mission Control was the mix of "cigarette smoke and boiled-over coffee pots" and given what they are going through the odds are that many of those engineers were lighting up more frequently than normal. In the last few scenes, several flight controllers are smoking cigars to celebrate Apollo 13's homecoming. This was a real-life NASA tradition at the time. Everyone Calls Him "Barkeep": A lot of the characters in Mission Control are known only by their positions—CAPCOM, RETRO, FAO, etc. —even in the film's credits. Excessive Steam Syndrome: Although the material being vented was oxygen rather than steam. As one of the flight controllers theorizes in the film, steam venting from a cooling system on the LM was responsible for the "shallowing" that threatened the re-entry. As water boils off into steam it takes heat with it, making it a pretty useful way of getting rid of excess heat in an environment where conduction and convection are out of the question. The LM was not meant to be powered up for the trans-lunar or trans-earth phases of the mission (it wasn't meant to be even attached any more for the trans-earth coast) so the effects of the steam vent had never been observed before. Furthermore, the reason they ran out of electric power was because they ran out of oxygen to feed the fuel cells, a technology first used on Gemini spacecraft and readied for Apollo. In the cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined at high temperatures, producing electricity... and steam, which was condensed into water for drinking and cooling. Explosive Stupidity: Of the all too literal variety. The oxygen tanks used on Apollo 13 had originally been installed in Apollo 10 and were designed to run at 28 volts, the nominal voltage provided by the fuel cells. At some point it was realized that certain operations on the ground could be sped up considerably if the electrical systems were uprated for dual-voltage operation (28 volts on a mission, 65 volts on the ground) so a redesign was done and the electrical systems uprated. As part of this process, the Apollo 10 tank was removed from its service module and a new uprated tank installed in its place, whilst the removed tank was returned to the manufacturer to be refurbished for dual-voltage operation. The parts were all replaced to run at the new voltage — except for one thermostat. This switch was designed to protect the tank from overheating by breaking the circuit in the event the temperature rose above 80 degrees. 80 degrees is an utterly ridiculous temperature for an oxygen tank to run at, but, as luck would have it, Oxygen Tank 2 got knocked against the ground during installation into Apollo 13's service module and an oxygen drainage pipe was knocked partway loose, meaning that emptying the tank of O 2 by standard procedures was no longer an option. The solution, when they discovered this issue, was to run the tank hot and boil all the liquid oxygen off instead. This seemed like a reasonable solution because the tank heater was protected by the aforementioned thermostat. However, when the boiloff procedure was executed and the switch tripped as it was supposed to, the tank was running on 65 volts. The switch arced and the resulting spark was powerful enough to weld it shut permanently, allowing the tank to get much hotter than 80 degrees. And because the tank's temperature sensor wasn't designed to go higher than 80, no-one knew that temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees had melted the insulation off the wires... until it was too late. Face Palm: Several. The level of frustration in the film runs extremely high, from malfunctioning equipment to accidents to outright stupidity, and the characters show it. At one point, Flight Director Gene Kranz reacts with a subtle one and some exasperated snarking on learning that the only available spare carbon-dioxide scrubbers on the stricken spacecraft (from the dead Command Module) are square, and the receptacle for the only working scrubber system (in the Lunar Module) is round. Gene Kranz: [facepalm] Tell me this isn't a government operation... I suggest you gentlemen invent a way to put a square peg in a round hole. Rapidly. Another one happens a little later on, when Mission Control macgyvers a solution, which includes using their spare urine bag. Which leads to this exchange: Fred: Shit, I tore it. Jack: Shit. Fred: Houston, what do we do if we rip the bag? Can we tape it? Andy (CAPCOM - WHITE): They just tore the bag. Technician: Oh, no. Gene does this at the end just after Odyssey has reestablished contact with Mission Control after reentry. However, this one is not out of frustration, just relief that the ordeal for everyone is over. Failsafe Failure: "It's reading a quadruple failure - that can't happen. " Normally true. The flight controllers normally see issues as matters of bad telemetry or sensors that fail. That's "instrumentation" problems. But when they verify their data to observation... Another case of Truth in Television. After the mission, Jack Swigert told LIFE magazine that if the crew had been given this type of scenario during a simulation, they would have complained about it "not being realistic. " The whole accident sequence was set in motion months earlier when a thermostat in the oxygen tank failed during ground operations, resulting in the tank's interior being overheated to the point where the insulation on the wiring melted off. The failed thermostat was supposed to act as a fail-safe against that exact event, but when it tripped it was running under a voltage it wasn't designed for and welded itself shut. The temperature probe, which might have alerted the ground crew to the problem only went up to 80 degrees F, which was the temperature they were expecting during the operation they were performing, so that system offered no warning of the problem that had been set in motion either. Failure Is the Only Option: The Inverted Trope Namer: "Failure is not an option! " Fanservice: It's clear Kevin Bacon's character is wearing his space jumpsuit with no shirt underneath judging by the white t-shirt and tank top necklines that are visible with the others. Kevin Bacon always showed off his chest on and off camera so this was a given. Fight to Survive: An epic struggle both in space and back in Mission Control to get the three astronauts back home alive. The Film of the Book: Started even before the book, Lost Moon, was finished. Flatline: Charles Berry, the flight surgeon at the control room, freaks out when the astronauts' monitors flatline, but they hear their voices through the radios fine, and the director assures him that the astronauts simply took their medical leads off. They did so because they were tired of hearing the operators fuss about their medical condition. Given that they were freezing, exhausted (unable to properly sleep), Haise was legitimately sick, and they were all under incredible stress, Berry had actual cause to be concerned for their health, but the astronauts were having none of it. (This was Artistic License in part. Jack Swigert couldn't use the biomed system because the LM only had connections for Fred and Jim. ) Foregone Conclusion: But no less tense and gripping for all that.     Tropes G to L  Gallows Humor: When the command module got safely back to Earth and the astronauts were saved, the representative of Grumman (who designed the Lunar Module) gave the representative of North American aviation (who designed the command service module) a bill. For towing expenses (with an added fee for "additional guest in room" since the Lunar Module was only meant for two, not three). North American responded in turn by stating that the CSM had already ferried three LMs (Apollos 10, 11 and 12) to the Moon with no such fees charged at the time. Genius Thriller: The movie is all about astronauts trying to outsmart a problem. Glasses Pull: Walter Cronkite is seen doing this when announcing Neil Armstrong setting foot on the moon and rubbing his hands together in glee. Good Is Boring: All the networks dropped the Apollo 13 live broadcast — but took up coverage the moment things went bad. Viewer and network coverage complacency about the launch was made worse because Apollo 12's flight was virtually videoless due to the accidental destruction of their only video camera while on the moon (the camera was accidentally pointed into the sun). Almost two years passed before viewers could care about seeing a man walk on the moon again. Marilyn Lovell: [arriving at NASA to watch it] Where's their broadcast? Henry: All the networks dumped us. One of them said we make goin' to the moon as exciting as taking a trip to Pittsburgh. Later, Marilyn is understandably angry when she gets a request from the news networks to put a tower for live broadcast on her lawn: Marilyn: I thought they didn't care about this mission. They didn't even run Jim's show. Henry: Well, it's more dramatic now. Suddenly people are... Marilyn: Landing on the moon wasn't dramatic enough for them — why should NOT landing on it be? Henry: Look, I, um, I realize how hard this is, Marilyn, but the whole world is caught up in this, it's historic-... Marilyn: No, Henry! Those people don't put one piece of equipment on my lawn. If they have a problem with that, they can take it up with my husband. He'll be HOME... on FRIDAY! Good with Numbers: Lovell, while under the pressure of the accident and threat of imminent death, performs the required calculations to activate Aquarius, in his head, while trying to keep himself and the rest of his crew alive. He asks Mission Control to double check his numbers, which they do with freaking slide rules and pronounce his calculations accurate. In real life, the reason Lovell asked for his figures to be checked from the ground was because he'd actually failed tests of his math skills in less stressful situations, so he sure as heck didn't trust them in the midst of a disaster, at least without another set of eyes to check his work. Gosh Dang It to Heck! : "I don't need to hear the obvious, I've got the frapping eight ball right in front of me! " Truth in Television on this one. The crew of a previous mission (Apollo 10) had been admonished for using somewhat harsher language on the radio, so all the astronauts were told to avoid using profanities in transmission, and in the audio commentary track for the Laserdisc/DVD, Jim Lovell protests the inaccuracy of this line, claiming he didn't use any profanity. (Most likely, he was protesting the use of "god-damned" a few lines earlier in the scene, since "frapping" was also in the official NASA transcript. ) Grasp the Sun: On Earth, Lovell closes one eye to "cover" the moon with his thumb. Later, from his spacecraft, he does the same to the Earth. The Great Repair: The second and third act involve keeping the spacecraft going on limited supplies while not having access to all the workings of the ship. Historical Badass Upgrade: Inverted. The level of stress, fear, and emotion that the astronauts express is exaggerated for dramatic effect to what the audience would expect from someone in such a terrifying situation, in real life they were totally calm and collected at all times. Historical Beauty Update: Ken Mattingly wasn't quite so handsome in real life. Historical In-Joke: During the live broadcast, the CAPCOM notes, "When I go up on 19, I'm gonna bring my entire collection of Johnny Cash along. " Sadly, Apollo 17 was the last mission to go to the moon. (This was also a reference to the fact that all of the CAPCOMs at the time were fellow astronauts, either members of past Apollo missions or in-training for future missions. ) note  During the viewing of the Apollo 11 lunar landing broadcast, Pete Conrad jokes that it's a dress rehearsal of his Apollo 12 landing. Sadly, Apollo 12's camera was accidentally pointed into the sun during the broadcast, frying the camera and leaving them unable to broadcast the excursions. During the LM inspection TV broadcast, Fred sets a tape recorder going, playing Spirit In The Sky. Jim comments that it was meant to be the theme from 2001: A Space Odyssey in honour of Odyssey, their command module. The intended music was played on the real Apollo 13 broadcast. Hollywood Science: Mostly averted. One great example: After the explosion, pieces of debris surround and follow the spacecraft (as much of the drifting debris must share the same velocity as the spacecraft since there is no air to create drag). The debris logically disappears after the (off-screen) PC+2 burn to get the crew home as fast as possible. Hope Spot: Inverted during the reentry scene. Previously, no manned mission had gone through more than three minutes of radio silence during reentry, the state of the Service Module indicated that the heat shield may have been damaged, and the angle of reentry was much shallower than any previous mission, meaning there was a distinct possibility that the Command Module would burn up during reentry. When four full minutes of radio silence passed without contact being reestablished, it seems that there is no chance the crew survived. Cue Lovell's response of "Hello, Houston. This is Odyssey. " And Mission Control Rejoiced. Humans Are Special: Jim Lovell, very drunk, is lying on a recliner in his back yard looking up at the moon, after the successful landing of Apollo 11. He explains to his wife why this trope applies: Humble Hero: Lovell. When Swigert introduces him to Tracy, he starts telling her about Lovell's impressive NASA record, and Lovell acts mildly embarrassed. He also tells a tour group that "the astronaut is only the most visible member of a very large team" and that everyone involved with the Apollo program is honored to be part of it. If I Had a Nickel: Raise your hand if you are reassured by this next statement: Jim: Well... if I had a dollar for every time they've killed me in this thing [the Apollo flight simulator], I wouldn't have to work for you, Deke. Ignored Vital News Reports: The grounded astronaut Ken Mattingly turns off his TV just before the ABC News special report comes on. Imagine Spot: When Lovell notices their landing site a short day dream sequence scene ensues, with Aquarius landed on the surface and Jim taking his first steps in the lunar landscape. Improbable Piloting Skills: Improbable maybe, but completely true. Improbable flying skills are part of the job description. Is This Thing Still On? : Sometimes they turn the connection to CAPCOM on and off. Sometimes they forget. Jim: Are we on VOX?! note  It Has Been an Honor: Jim comments on this as they are preparing to re-enter Earth's atmosphere. Jim: Gentlemen, it's been a privilege flying with you. Just Plane Wrong: Minor example. When Jim Lovell flies by his house in a T-38 there's a visible contrail, despite his low altitude. Ron Howard knew that, but had it put in anyway in a rare moment of Rule of Cool. Kinda Busy Here: Jack's called about replacing Mattingly during shower sex. Lecture as Exposition: Jim Lovell explains to his young son, and to the audience, how the LM is used to land on the moon, specifically noting that it only carries two people. Let Them Die Happy: A variation as the titular spacecraft is finally about to re-enter the atmosphere after so much has gone wrong, and mission control sees they are drifting off course. RETRO: Flight, they're still shallowing a bit up there. Do you want to tell them? Gene Kranz: Anything we can do about it? RETRO: Not now, Flight. Gene Kranz: Then they don't need to know, do they? RETRO: Copy that. Literal Metaphor: The carbon dioxide levels on the Lunar Module are rising faster than the LM's air filters can handle. But the Command Module's filters, which can handle it, are square, whereas the LM's filters are round. So NASA's engineers have to actually put a square peg into a round hole, promptly lampshaded by Kranz. Lost Wedding Ring: This sequence was only slightly exaggerated for drama, though the initial Los Angeles Times review criticized this "invention". Marilyn Lovell did drop her wedding ring in the shower, but she was able to retrieve it; still, the experience was less than reassuring.     Tropes M to R  MacGyvering: The engineers and the astronauts had to do this to adapt the lander's completely differently designed air filters with the command module's before the crew suffocated. They eventually put together a solution that involves duct tape, a plastic baggie, a sock, and the cover of their flight manual. (Unfortunately, the great scene where the engineers run in carrying all the gear that the craft would have and saying they have to make a filter adapter out of that pile didn't happen in real life; an engineer figured it out on the drive to his workplace when called up for the emergency. ) Manly Tears: Gene Kranz sheds some when they regain communication with the Odyssey after the ship has safely survived reentry. Kranz isn't the only one; it's subtle, but if you look closely during this scene, you can see several other engineers wiping their eyes. Mass "Oh, Crap! ": Lovell's report that the spacecraft is venting results in this, from his fellow astronauts and all of Mission Control. Meaningful Name: The Command Module is called Odyssey, in reference to 2001: A Space Odyssey, but it also refers to Homer's The Odyssey, a quintessential tale about an epic long voyage home. Midair Bobbing: An artifact of the filming process. The actors in the spacecraft really are in freefall, as mentioned in the Artificial Gravity entry above, but the set is attached to the KC-135; as the plane is buffeted by the atmosphere, the set actually bobs around the actors, making it look like they're shifting about even when they're not touching any walls. A large portion of the spacecraft shots were done on a sound stage in normal gravity, with the actors required to fake weightlessness; however, because the actors had already filmed in freefall, they were able to adjust their behavior accordingly, and the intercutting of KC-135 and stage shots made the effects less noticeable. Midair Repair: Mid- space repair, as the crew has to nurse their stricken spacecraft around the moon and back home. Missed Him by That Much: Marilyn Lovell did come to Mission Control to see the astronauts broadcast. The explosion happened between her leaving mission control and getting home. Good thing they waited until after the broadcast to stir the tanks. Ken turns off his television just as the news breaks that Apollo 13's in trouble. If he'd waited a few more seconds he would have known what was going on a lot sooner. Missed the Call: If Ken Mattingly had had the measles like everyone else, he would have been clear to go. He's pulled and replaced by Jack Swigert two days before the launch. Mattingly eventually did fly Apollo 16, which successfully landed on the moon. Mission Control: The real kind. Mood Whiplash: Cuts right from Jack Swigert's reaction to being told he's going to the moon to Ken Mattingly's reaction to being told he's not going to the moon... Happens twice during the "Where Are They Now? " monologue Jim Lovell gives for his crewmen. Firstly, it's implied that Fred Haise finally got to walk on the moon after all, until Lovell reveals that his Apollo 18 mission was scrapped due to budget cuts and the unsuccessful Apollo 13 mission marked the end of his space career. Likewise, Jack Swigert's future is initially painted quite brightly when Jim tells the audience he was elected to congress... before revealing that he never even got to take office due to his sudden death by cancer. Mundane Solution: The instruments are unavailable for re-entry, and Ground Control wonder how they're going to find their way back. Jim has the simple solution: use the terminator of the Earth. Negated Moment of Awesome: The mission was going to be flight commander Jim Lovell's Moment of Awesome. He was planning on retiring from NASA after this mission, and what better way to do it than by walking on the moon, after previously flying to it on Apollo 8. Unfortunately, an explosion in mid-flight means having to abort the moon landing, thereby making Lovell the only astronaut to travel to the moon twice without actually landing. New Meat: The Saturn V launch scenes make it very obvious that Lovell is the only crew member who has flown in space before (specifically, Apollo 13 was his fourth flight overall and his second flight launched on a Saturn V). He knows what all the pre-launch background noises are, and he knows when to warn the crew about "a little jolt. " No Antagonist: The damage was accidental and not sabotage, the astronauts argue but cooperate, and NASA is honest and labors to get their men back. Characters such as the flight surgeon, the jackalesque media and the political liaisons come off unsympathetic or callous, but that's all. Everyone in the cast is doing whatever they can to get the crew home safely. Nobody Poops: Jim laments that they can't show how the bathrooms aboard the module work during their live broadcast. We then get a beautiful shot of his pee spraying out into space. They also have to resort to bagging their waste once the emergency occurs, as dumping it would only throw off their trajectory. No Celebrities Were Harmed: Joe Spano's character is listed simply as "NASA Director" but was apparently loosely based on Chris Kraft, the progenitor of the Flight Director program. For dramatic purposes the character is a bit of a doomsayer (in contrast to Gene "Failure is not an option" Kranz), so they probably left him unnamed because Kraft is simply too highly regarded for NASA to tolerate him being portrayed negatively. Noisy Shut-Up: Shortly after the explosion, everyone in Mission Control starts talking frantically at the same time. Gene Kranz has to stand up and yell "Quiet down! " a few times so that he can start giving them instructions. It works very well. Noodle Implements: The materials Mission Control tells the astronauts to gather (to MacGyver another air filter for the LEM) include suit hoses, a flight plan cover, 2 lithium hydroxide cannisters, duct tape, and one sock. No Phones Tonight: Ken Mattingly takes his off the hook and goes to bed, forcing fellow astronaut John Young to come wake him up after the explosion. Nothing but Hits: Anytime anyone is listening to the radio, and "Spirit in the Sky" on tape during the mission. (The last one gets a lampshade hung by Lovell, who mentions the soundtrack was switched—in real life, the music was Also sprach Zarathustra by Strauss, as Lovell in-film said it should have been. ) Nothing Is Scarier: Three minutes of radio silence was the longest any previous mission had gone during a successful reentry. Apollo 13 was out of contact for four. With everything that had gone on up till then, this was the most nerve-wracking four minutes in NASA history. In real life the radio blackout was six minutes, nearly a minute and a half longer than expected due to the reentry angle being significantly shallower than any previous mission. More time in the low density upper atmosphere meant it took them much longer to slow down to the point that the air ahead of them was no longer being heated by compression into a plasma which radio signals can't penetrate. Not Me This Time: Fred Haise has been using the cabin repress valve, which causes a sharp banging sound, to mess with the other astronauts. When the oxygen tank explodes and the entire ship starts shaking, he rushes in saying, "That's no repress valve! " Not the Intended Use: Gene invokes this to come up with their contingency plans. Gene: I don't care what anything was designed to do; I care about what it can do. Obligatory Swearing: Only in the sense that they actually do swear about as much could be expected from anyone else in their situation. In real life they stayed totally calm at all times, the harshest language any of the astronauts used was Jim Lovell's use of the phrase " frappin'. " Oh, Crap! : The moment when everyone, crew and ground control alike, realizes that whatever has happened, it's a major problem. Which is absolutely true. According to Lovell in his book, the one thing no Commander on ANY space mission wants to see is his craft "bleeding. " Jim: Houston, we are venting something into space. Moments later, the worst-case scenario is confirmed. Jim: It's got to be the oxygen. The moment that it really hits how screwed they are: Lovell: Freddo, how long does it take to power up the LEM? Haise: Three hours, by the checklist. Lovell: We don't have that much time. Haise: Shiiiiiit... [hurries into the LEM] This is followed moments later with: Lovell: We've got fifteen minutes, Freddo, it's worse than I thought. A bit later, they get a brutal lesson in exactly why the LEM power-up checklist is three hours long: Jim: Houston, be aware, our RCS isn't up yet! We have no attitude control on Aquarius! And again, when they get their first look at the damage after separating the service module. Jim: Houston, we're getting our first look at the service module now. One whole side of the spacecraft is missing ◊. Right by the high gain antenna, a whole panel is blown out. Right up... right up to our heat shield. A small one happens when Jim irately demands that Mission Control give them the command module power-up procedure only to have Deke Slayton cut in on the radio to tell him to be patient. The Apollo 13 astronauts knew full well that only the CAPCOM officer at Mission Control was supposed to communicate with the flight crew directly; so when their boss Deke broke protocol and personally got on the radio to talk to them, all three astronauts immediately realized the status of the power-up procedure: Jack: They don't know how to do it. Upon discovering their air in the LEM is building up CO 2 faster than anticipated, Haise realizes he forgot to adjust his calculations to include a third person. Lovell confirms on his commentary that this really did happen. When Lovell's young son is told there's something wrong with Apollo 13, he asks wide-eyed with fear, "Was it the door? " note  O. O. C. Is Serious Business: Throughout the movie Gene Krantz is the cool, calm leader of the Mission Control team. The one moment the facade cracks is when he is informed that there's still a delay in getting the critical power-up procedure for the Command Module, letting the audience know the situation is getting critical. Gene: Come on, I want whatever you guys got on the power-up procedures. We've got to get something up to these guys. Deke: Gene, they're working on it. Gene: I don't want the want the whole damn bible, just give me a couple of chapters. We've got to give these guys something. Deke: They're working on it now. NASA Engineer I'll get over there and get an estimate Gene: (angrily kicks a trashcan aside) Goddammit, I don't want another estimate! I want the procedure! Now! One Steve Limit: Averted. There are two Johns, John Young and John Aaron. Sometimes they're in the same scene and both respond when people don't specify which John they're asking for. One-Woman Wail: During the loss of communications as they pass behind the moon (courtesy of Annie Lennox). The Perfectionist: Ken Mattingly. He's the only one in the crew who wants to run the simulation over and over to get it just exactly right. Parental Fashion Veto: Barbara Lovell wants to go out for Halloween dressed like a hippie, and her parents tell her she can't go out dressed that way. Phlebotinum Analogy: News anchors describing how narrow of a window the Odyssey has for a safe reentry. Newscaster: In order to enter the atmosphere safely, the crew must aim for a corridor just two and a half degrees wide.... The reentry corridor is, in fact, so narrow that if this basketball were the Earth, and this softball were the Moon, and the two were placed fourteen feet apart, the crew would have to hit a target no thicker than this piece of paper. Practical Voice-Over: Used extensively here, as the crew's plight was a major news item. Some of the original news broadcasts, including Jules Bergman's interruption of The Dick Cavett Show, were used for the film. Pragmatic Adaptation: Several details are glossed over or left out, sometimes for time or story-flow reasons, other times because Ron Howard thought that detailing every problem that cropped up on the mission would lead to disbelief from audiences. An example of the former: Passive Thermal Control note  is mentioned once but never explained, and the need to maintain PTC as part of the post-explosion survival strategy is left out altogether. With all the other problems they had to worry about it seemed like an unnecessary additional detail. An example of the latter: In real life one of the LM's batteries suffered a partial venting of its electrolyte, reducing its capacity and causing some anxiety on the ground that they'd lost precious power reserved. This was left out entirely as it was felt it would come off as too melodramatic to throw that into the mix as well. Precision F-Strike: By Jim Lovell, upon being told that Ken Mattingly has to be replaced less than three days before liftoff: And later when there's problems in devising an ad-hoc power-up procedure before re-entry: NASA engineer: I'll get over to the simulator and get an estimate- Gene: [kicking a trashcan] GODDAMMIT! I don't WANT another estimate! I want the procedure! Now! Ken Mattingly can't figure out the Odyssey's re-entry sequence and it's starting to get on his nerves: John Aaron: The sequence looks good, we're just over budget on the amperage. Ken: By how much? John: Three or four amps. Ken: Goddammit, John, is it three or four!? Punctuated! For! Emphasis! : Gene Kranz's most famous line of the movie is delivered like this to provide extra gravitas. Kranz: Failure. Is not. An option! Quieter Than Silence: The ambiance outside the capsule, as represented by... wind. Readings Are Off the Scale: Like in most fictional versions, this is a Bad Thing in real life. Sy Liebergot: O 2 Tank 2 not reading at all [... ] It's — it's reading a quadruple failure — that can't happen... It's got to be instrumentation. And as noted above, this was a big part of how the tank got damaged and why it malfunctioned/blew up in the first place. Reality Is Unrealistic: A preview audience member criticized the " typical Hollywood ending ", and even those familiar with the basic story have assumed that certain historically accurate parts of the film (most notably the scene where Marilyn Lovell loses her wedding ring) were invented for dramatic reasons. The wedding ring shower scene was exaggerated somewhat. In real life, the ring did slip off her finger, but it was too big to fall through the drain cover and Marilyn was able to retrieve it. Similarly, Marilyn Lovell's nightmare about Jim's team suffering an explosive decompression accident was not invented for dramatic effect, but based on a real dream she had before the launch. On the other end of the spectrum, the astronauts were depicted more emotional than they actually behaved in order for the audience to connect with them easier. In reality, the astronauts kept a cool head at all times (all three had been test pilots, it comes with the territory) and no-one could afford to spend time worrying. This change was made likely because audiences would have a hard time believing that anyone (even trained astronauts) could be so badass under so much pressure and also because it would have been boring if they kept a cool head at all times. note  The infamous quadruple equipment malfunction happened exactly as was portrayed in the movie. Jack Swigert even mentioned this trope directly during an interview shortly after they got back, stating that if NASA had handed them this exact scenario during a training simulation, they would all have complained about it not being realistic. At first stage ignition, the Saturn V launch shows great balls of fire blooming out from around the engines, and then shrinking right back down again. Jim Lovell commented on this, saying that many people believed that the film was merely being run backwards; however, actual footage of the launches shows the fireball retreating in this way, as the initial cloud of flames is sucked back through the base of the launch platform by the ever-increasing velocity of the exhaust plume. The unrealistic part of the film's launch (aside from the Saturn V's paint job for 13) were the holding arms, which all swing back simultaneously, not one by one. As portrayed in the film, the longest time Mission Control had ever lost contact with an astronaut crew was three minutes of radio silence. The movie depicts at as four, in real life it was six. Much of the astronaut's dialogue and their reactions are greatly exaggerated for drama. In particular, many comments by the cinematic Lovell were actually said by Fred Haise, according to the transcript. Also exaggerated for the sake of drama were the relative inexperience, compared to Lovell, of Swigert (the real Swigert was a solid pilot that also trained in many Command Module disaster scenarios) and Haise (who pointed out many problems in the real mission long before they came to pass). There were several other problems that didn't make it into the film (the biggest was one of the LM's batteries suffering a loss of capacity, causing mission control to fear that they'd lost some of their reserve power) because it would have simply come across as too melodramatic to believe. The real Gene Kranz switched roles with flight director Glynn Lunney as shown in the film but never manned the Flight console again until perhaps near the mission's conclusion, leading his White Team as a roving troubleshooting team while other directors were in charge. The way that mission control comes up with the plan to fit the Command Module's air filters to the mismatched slots of the Lunar Module was far more improbable in real life than in the film. In the movie, it's depicted as the efforts of a team of engineers working frantically to come up with a solution, in real life, the solution was thought up by one guy in his car on the way to work. Real Person Cameo: The real Jim Lovell has a role as the captain of the aircraft carrier that recovers the crew after splashdown. This role is doubly appropriate, as Lovell is a retired Navy captain. He was originally going to appear as an admiral, but he told the producers something along the lines of "I retired as a captain so I'll be a captain. " The real Marilyn Lovell also has a cameo as one of the spectators at the launch. Repeat to Confirm: Standard operating procedure for NASA. Lovell does this three times when Houston tells him to shut down the fuel cells, which is an irreversible procedure that would scrub their moon landing, in a desperate measure to contain the oxygen leak. Jim: Are you saying you want the whole smash? Closing down the react valves for fuel cells shutdown? Shutting down the fuel cells, did I hear you right? Recognition Failure: Lovell's senile mother doesn't recognize Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin when they arrive to give support. ** This also counts as a Historical Person Punchline. While Armstrong is mentioned a lot early in the film (and the 1969 moon landing shown), he and Buzz only first appear as characters in that scene, and are named by Marilyn only after telling them what to do. Reentry Scare: It didn't help Marilyn and family to see ABC's Jules Bergman demonstrate re-entry by putting a blowtorch to a sample of the spacecraft's ablative heat shield to show how it was supposed to work. Retirony: Narrowly averted; Jim Lovell announces that Apollo 13 is going to be his last mission. Reverse the Polarity: Justified. Shortly before re-entry they needed "four more amps" to power up the Command Module. They used a circuit intended to provide power from the Command Module to the Lunar Module to do the opposite. It's mentioned that a lot of power is lost this way, as the circuit wasn't built for this, but it's good enough for what they need it to do here. note  Rock Bottom: And then some. RETRO - WHITE: Flight, this is RETRO. Gene Kranz (FLIGHT DIRECTOR - WHITE): Go, RETRO. RETRO: Flight. We are looking at a typhoon warning at the edge of the prime recovery zone. Kranz: Say again, RETRO. We are looking at a typhoon warning on the edge of the prime recovery area, now this is just a warning, Flight, it could miss them. Kranz: Only if their luck changes. Rousing Speech: Gene Kranz makes the team's mission statement very clear. Gene Kranz: I want you guys to find every engineer who designed every switch, every circuit, every transistor and every light bulb that's up there. Then I want you to talk to the guy in the assembly line who actually built the thing. Find out how to squeeze every amp out of both of these goddamn machines. I want this mark all the way back to Earth with time to spare. We never lost an American in space, we're sure as hell not gonna lose one on my watch! Failure is not an option! Another great mission summary from Gene. Gene: I don't care what anything was designed to do, I care about what it can do.     Tropes S to Z  Science Hero: The three astronauts and most of the personnel at mission control. Their ingenuity turns a doomed scenario into one of NASA's finest hours. Scotty Time: Played deadly serious here: Lovell: Freddo, how long does it take to power up the LEM? Haise: Three hours, by the checklist. [hurries into the LEM] In fact, they had just 15 minutes to power up the lunar module before the command module lost too much battery power to survive for reentry. They only succeeded because they were ahead of schedule and LM was already partially powered up for a systems checkout. Shoot the Messenger: Unsurprisingly, given the tense circumstances, those most aware of problems have to bear the brunt of others' frustration and impatience over things they have no control over. The astronauts get angry at Charles Berry, who was simply doing what he needed to do as a flight surgeon to keep them safe (you really can't risk your command module pilot coming down with the measles during lunar orbit rendezvous). Of course, nobody wants to hear John Aaron tell them they don't have enough power whenever they want to do something. Shout-Out: The scene where Jim's Corvette stalls at a green light is a reference to a similar scene in American Graffiti, which Ron Howard starred in. Shower of Love: Where Jack Swigert is when he gets the call that he's become the new pilot. Shown Their Work: There are some inaccuracies, but they were minor and primarily in service of the Rule of Drama. The greatest changes were in the mission dialogue. The real astronauts rarely quibbled, much less argued, per the mission transcript. Tom Hank's character also "stole" lines that were often said by his crewmates. The spacecraft sets and mission control sets were so period accurate that they can be mistaken for the real thing. The space suits worn by the actors were practically exact replicas of the space suits Apollo astronauts wore. One person that visited the Mission Control set (a full re-creation), after leaving the set, was looking for the elevator afterward (the original Mission Control was on the third floor of its building; the set was built on the ground level) — the set was that accurate. Sinking Ship Scenario The '60s: The film is set in the transition between The '60s and The '70s. As exemplified by Barbara Lovell's hippie attire and her brooding over " The stupid Beatles breaking up" (Paul McCartney resigned from the band on April 9, 1970, two days before Apollo 13's launch). Space Is Cold: Justified as the real Apollo 13 did ice up. The spacecraft really did lose heat throughout the mission to the point where ice crystals were starting to form. The spacecraft designers knew that the electronics and fuel cells would generate a lot of heat, so they built the LEM and CM with plenty of radiator surfaces to dump the heat out into space. But with the fuel cells out of commission, and not enough power to run the electronics or cabin heaters... Space Is Noisy: Lots of booming and hissing noises from the spacecraft, as shot from outside. Spiritual Successor: The Tom Hanks produced HBO anthology From the Earth to the Moon covered the Apollo missions one by one, from one to seventeen. Obviously, it would have been redundant to retell the story of Apollo 13, so instead, the episode covered the media perspective of the potential disaster. Gravity (2013) could be seen as one, as it is a 'serious' space disaster film based on current technology and starring astronauts rather than a straight sci-fi. Ed Harris even resumes his role as Mission Control. The Martian could also be seen as one, with the problems Cranked Up to Eleven. Stepford Smiler: The wives of the astronauts are very aware they should conceal their fears and put on a happy and cheery face for the media. Marilyn Lovell even schools Mary Haise about this. Marilyn: [sotto voce] Remember, proud, happy and thrilled. Stunned Silence: Mission Control after Lovell tells them "we are venting something into space". Justified, as this is definitive confirmation that this is not going to be a minor problem, and the astronaut's lives are in serious danger. Tactful Translation: See the quote under Captain Obvious, above. Taught by Experience: Several of the procedures used had never been tested or even imagined, the technicians have to think on their feet. Techno Babble: An example of Real Life technobabble, as much of the dialogue was taken from the actual recordings of the conversations between the astronauts and mission control, and is used in a more-or-less correct way. Also counts as a Bilingual Bonus if you're an engineer. Teeth-Clenched Teamwork: Mild examples here and there during moments of tension. Gene Kranz quickly puts an end to any bickering and there are some doubts about Jack, as he was a member of the backup team. At some point, Fred antagonizes and confronts Jack, but eventually gives him credit. There was no actual animosity between the crew, and even in the film it's clear that they're just reacting out of stress and fear. By the end, they're Fire-Forged Friends. Tempting Fate: During the launch, after a second-stage engine failure is successfully worked around: Lovell: Our gimbals are good, our trim is good; looks like we just had our glitch for this mission. NASA's attitude towards the number 13 prior to the mission - the mission number, liftoff at 1:13 PM (1313 in 24-hour time) on April 11th, 1970 (4+1+1+7+0 = 13), entering lunar orbit on April 13th. After a reporter points the 13 Is Unlucky trope, Mattingly mocks him saying that he made a black cat pass over a broken mirror under the lunar module's stairs - and everything still looks okay! 13 Is Unlucky: Lots of joking about this being Apollo mission #13. Tim Taylor Technology: Inverted. The crew had to consume as little power as possible during the trip back to Earth as the LM's batteries and water were normally only for 2 men for 3 days, not three men for five days. Furthermore, they had to ensure that their improvised CM power-up sequence didn't draw more than 20 amps (instead of the usual 65) from the CM's batteries, or they wouldn't have enough power to last through the whole reentry. Typeset in the Future: The Eurostile Bold Extended font made popular by 2001: A Space Odyssey is used for the credits and on-screen messages like MANNED SPACECRAFT CENTER HOUSTON, TEXAS, THREE MONTHS PRIOR TO LAUNCH. Understatement: Yet again, "Houston, we have a problem. " The "little jolt" during the launch. Vertigo Effect: A dolly zoom on Gene Kranz's face when Lovell reports that they're venting something out into space. Victory Is Boring: A congressman mentions that his constituents remark that the space program is pointless now that the US has beaten the Russians to the Moon. Every single channel passes on the opportunity to broadcast the mission from the lunar module live. They only show interest when things begin to go bad. Vomit Indiscretion Shot: After launching, Fred Haise pukes out some small chunks of food, and some of it spatters on the camera lens. Yum. Waistcoat of Style: In both the movie and Real Life, Flight Director Gene Kranz' wife sews him a vest before each flight. Jerry Bostick (FDO White): Mrs. Kranz has pulled out the old needle and thread again. Technician: Last one looked like he bought it off a gypsy. Jerry: Well, you can't argue with tradition. [later, after Gene finally puts it on, with applause from all the technicians] Technician: Hey, Gene, I guess we can go to the moon now! The Watson: Various characters serve as this to Jim Lovell in regards to space flight, particularly Jim's youngest son Jeffrey. We Interrupt This Program: Quite often, to bring mission updates. Dramatically well-done by using actual footage from one of the era's most knowledgeable journalist experts, ABC's Science Editor Jules Bergman, with dramatic footage of Walter Cronkite during the drama. A fictitious series of network coverage filled in any other needed dramatic commentary. Wham Line: "Houston, we have a problem" is the most notable, but also "Houston, we are venting something into space, " and "a whole panel is blown out, right up... right up to our heat shield, " which really makes everyone worry that all their efforts may have been for nothing. What Happened to the Mouse? : Marilyn's lost wedding ring in the shower at the beginning of the movie is never brought up again nor resolved. In reality, she did get it back. "Where Are They Now? " Epilogue: Narration by Hanks (in character as Lovell) describing the fates of the main characters. The World Is Just Awesome: In his Imagine Spot, Jim imagines himself staring in awe at the distant Earth. You Had Us Worried There: After a tense week in space the crew make it back safely. "Failure is not an option! ".

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